Research Papers

Formulation of Influence of Machine Geometric Errors on Five-Axis On-Machine Scanning Measurement by Using a Laser Displacement Sensor

[+] Author and Article Information
Soichi Ibaraki

Department of Micro Engineering,
Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku,
Kyoto 615-8530, Japan
e-mail: ibaraki@prec.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Yoshihiro Kimura, Yu Nagai

Department of Micro Engineering,
Kyoto University Katsura, Nishigyo-ku,
Kyoto 615-8530, Japan

Shizuo Nishikawa

DMG Mori Seiki, Co., Ltd., Meieki 2-35-16,
Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 450-0002, Japan

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 14, 2013; final manuscript received November 11, 2014; published online December 18, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Eric R. Marsh.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 021013 (Apr 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1277; doi: 10.1115/1.4029183 History: Received July 14, 2013; Revised November 11, 2014; Online December 18, 2014

For on-machine measurement of workpiece position, orientation, and geometry on machine tools, five-axis continuous (scanning) measurement by using a laser displacement sensor has a strong advantage in its efficiency, compared to conventional discrete measurement using a touch-triggered contact probe. In any on-machine measurement schemes, major contributors to their measurement uncertainty are error motions of the machine tool itself. This paper formulates the influence of geometric errors of rotary axis average lines on the measurement uncertainty of the five-axis on-machine measurement by using a laser displacement sensor. To validate the present simulator, experimental comparison of measured and simulated trajectories is conducted on five-axis on-machine measurement of a precision sphere of the precalibrated geometry. For total 28 paths measured on the spherical surface, an error in the simulated trajectories from measured trajectories (properly low-pass filtered) was at maximum 5 μm. Uncertainty assessment demonstration for more practical application example of a turbine blade measurement is also presented.

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Fig. 1

Five-axis scanning measurement for higher measurement efficiency

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Fig. 2

Measuring principle of triangulation-based laser displacement sensor based on diffuse reflection

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Fig. 3

Machine configuration

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Fig. 4

Laser displacement sensor setup to measure the light spot position

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Fig. 5

Coordinate transformation from machine coordinate system to workpiece coordinate system; (a) in machine coordinate system; (b) in workpiece coordinate system

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Fig. 6

Scanning operation of sphere to measure its center position

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Fig. 7

Calibration procedure of direction vector of laser beam, t

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Fig. 8

Calibration procedure of sensor's zero position vector, l

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Fig. 9

Experimental setup (at B=0deg)

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Fig. 10

Measured light spot path parameterized by β (α=0deg)

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Fig. 11

Laser direction on the measured path

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Fig. 12

Command X, Y, Z, B, and C trajectories in machine coordinate system for the path α=0deg and β=80deg (forward and backward); (a) X, Y, and Z trajectories; (b) B and C trajectories

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Fig. 13

R-test procedure by using the laser measurement system; (a) at B=0deg; (b) at various B angles

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Fig. 14

Measurement trajectories in workpiece coordinate system for β=0,40,80,90,100,140,180deg and α=0deg

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Fig. 15

Measurement and simulated trajectories projected onto the plane containing the command path; (a) β=0deg, (b) β=40deg, (c) β=90deg, (d) β=100deg

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Fig. 16

Nominal geometry of turbine blade to be simulated

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Fig. 17

Measurement setup for the turbine blade

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Fig. 18

Simulated trajectories of the blade's cross section at z = 60 mm under geometric errors in Table 5; (a) when the test piece is installed at the position shown in Fig. 16, (b) when its Z-position is 40 mm higher




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