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Research Papers

Understanding the Effect of Heat Input and Sheet Gap on Porosity Formation in Fillet Edge and Flange Couch Laser Welding of AC-170PX Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Component Manufacture

[+] Author and Article Information
A. W. Alshaer

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical, Aerospace,
and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: Ahmad_sh1986@yahoo.com;
ahmadwael.alshaer@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

L. Li

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical, Aerospace,
and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: lin.li@manchester.ac.uk

A. Mistry

Advanced Manufacturing Engineering,
Jaguar – Land Rover,
Banbury Road,
Gaydon, Warwick CV 35 0RR, UK
e-mail: amistry@jaguarlandrover.com

1Corresponding author

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 15, 2014; final manuscript received October 12, 2014; published online December 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 021011 (Apr 01, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1387; doi: 10.1115/1.4028900 History: Received July 15, 2014; Revised October 12, 2014; Online December 12, 2014

An investigation is reported on the characteristics of porosity formation in high power disk laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) alloy sheets (coated with titanium and zirconium) in two weld joint configurations: fillet edge and flange couch with AA4043 filler wire for potential automotive manufacturing applications. Porosity, macro- and microstructure characteristics, tensile strengths, microhardness, and joint geometry were investigated. It has been found that an increase in heat input and welding speed generates more porosity in both types of joints. The introduction of a 0.2 mm gap reduces porosity significantly in the fillet edge joints but it does not have noticeable effect on the flange couch joints. The mechanism of the porosity formation is discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Macrosections of the fillet edge joints at various welding parameters where the white spots are porosity

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Fig. 5

Macrosections of the flange couch joints at various welding parameters

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Fig. 3

(a) and (b) lateral angle for the fillet edge joint and flange couch joints, respectively, and (c) the drag angle for both types of joints

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the scansonic ALO3 laser welding head

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Fig. 1

(a) Fillet edge joint and (b) flange couch joint with offset

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Fig. 6

Microstructure of the weld-HAZ-base material of a fillet edge joint welded using 2000 W and 20 mm/s

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Fig. 7

Microstructure of the weld-HAZ-base material of a flange couch joint welded using 3800 W and 35 mm/s

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Fig. 8

XRD test results for the AC170-PX (AA6014) joints welded using 4043 filler wire (phases detected are Al-Si, Mg2Si, and SiO2)

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Fig. 9

Porosity percentages for fillet edge joints (a) without gaps and (b) with a 0.2 mm gap

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Fig. 10

Porosity percentages for flange couch joints (a) without gaps and (b) with a 0.2 mm gap

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Fig. 15

Penetration depths and weld width values for the fillet edge joints

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Fig. 16

Penetration depths and weld width values for the flange couch joints

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Fig. 17

(a) UTS values for fillet edge joints and (b) UTS values as a percentage of the base materials strength 195,000 KN/m2

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Fig. 18

(a) UTS values for flange couch joints and (b) UTS values as a percentage of the base materials strength 195,000 KN/m2

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Fig. 19

Microhardness profile for a fillet edge joint welded at 3500 W and 35 mm/s

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Fig. 20

Microhardness profile for a flange couch joint welded at 3800 W and 35 mm/s

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Fig. 11

Porosity distribution curve for a fillet edge joint welded at 5300 W and 50 mm/s (left) and a cross section of the weld (right)

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Fig. 12

Porosity distribution curve for a flange couch joint welded at 2200 W and 20 mm/s (left) and a cross section of the weld (right)

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Fig. 13

Fillet edge weld dimensions (t1 and t2 are the sheets thicknesses, s the gap size, Pw the weld width, and Pd penetration depth), with a gap (a) and without a gap (b)

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Fig. 14

Flange couch weld dimensions (t1 and t2 are the sheets thicknesses, s the gap size, Pw the weld width, and Pd penetration depth), with a gap (a) and without a gap (b)

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