0
Technical Brief

On Cutting Temperature Measurement During Titanium Machining With an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid Spray System

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander C. Hoyne

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: ahoyne2@gmail.com

Chandra Nath

Post Doctorate Research Associate
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: nathc2@asme.org

Shiv G. Kapoor

Professor
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: sgkapoor@illinois.edu

1Present address: Mechanical Engineer, John Deere, Waterloo, IA 50704.

2Present address: Postdoctoral Fellow, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332.

3Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 2, 2014; final manuscript received September 29, 2014; published online December 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 024502 (Apr 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1353; doi: 10.1115/1.4028898 History: Received July 02, 2014; Revised September 29, 2014; Online December 12, 2014

The poor thermal conductivity and low elongation-to-break ratio of titanium lead to the development of extreme temperatures (in excess of 550 °C) localized in the tool–chip interface during machining of its alloys. At such temperature level, titanium becomes highly reactive with most tool materials resulting in accelerated tool wear. The atomization-based cutting fluid (ACF) spray system has recently been demonstrated to improve tool life in titanium machining due to good cutting fluid penetration causing the temperature to be reduced in the cutting zone. In this study, the cutting temperatures are measured both by inserting thermocouples at various locations of the tool–chip interface and the tool–work thermocouple technique. Cutting temperatures for dry machining and machining with flood cooling are also characterized for comparison with the ACF spray system temperature data. Findings reveal that the ACF spray system more effectively reduces cutting temperatures over flood cooling and dry conditions. The tool–chip friction coefficient indicates that the fluid film created by the ACF spray system also actively penetrates the tool–chip interface to enhance lubrication during titanium machining.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Ezugwu, E. O., and Wang, Z. M., 1997, “Titanium Alloys and Their Machinability—A Review,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 68(3), pp. 262–274. [CrossRef]
Nath, C., Kapoor, S. G., DeVor, R., Srivastava, A., and Iverson, J., 2012, “Design and Evaluation of an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid Spray System in Turning of Titanium Alloy,” J. Manuf. Processes, 14(4), pp. 452–459. [CrossRef]
Davies, M. A., Ueda, T., M'Saoubi, R., Mullany, B., and Cooke, A. L., 2007, “On the Measurement of Temperature in Material Removal Processes,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., 56(2), pp. 581–604. [CrossRef]
Longbottom, J. M., and Lanham, J. D., 2005, “Cutting Temperature Measurement While Machining—A Review,” Aircr. Eng. Aerosp. Technol., 77(2), pp.122–130. [CrossRef]
Stephenson, D. A., and Agapiou, J. S., 2006, Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Taylor & Francis, New York.
Herbert, E. G., 1926, “The Measurement of Cutting Temperatures,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1, pp. 289–329.
Boothroyd, G., 1961, “Photographic Technique for the Determination of Metal Cutting Temperatures,” Br. J. Appl. Phys., 12(5), pp. 238–242. [CrossRef]
Werschmoeller, D., and Li, X., 2011, “Measurement of Tool Internal Temperatures in the Tool–Chip Contact Region by Embedded Micro Thin Film Thermocouples,” J. Manuf. Processes, 13(2), pp. 147–152. [CrossRef]
El–Wardany, T. I., Mohammed, E., and Elbestawi, M. A., 1996, “Cutting Temperature of Ceramic Tools in High Speed Machining of Difficult-To-Cut Materials,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 36(5), pp. 611–634. [CrossRef]
Kitagawa, T., Kubo, A., and Maekawa, K., 1997, “Temperature and Wear of Cutting Tools in High-Speed Machining of Inconel 718 and Ti–6Al–6V–2Sn,” Wear, 202(2), pp. 142–148. [CrossRef]
Klocke, F., Kramer, A., Sangermann, H., and Lung, D., 2012, “Thermo-Mechanical Tool Loading During High-Performance Cutting of Hard-To-Cut Materials,” Procedia CIRP, 1, pp. 295–300. [CrossRef]
Sato, M., Tamura, N., and Tanaka, H., 2011, “Temperature Variation in the Cutting Tool in End Milling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 133(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Li, L., Chang, H., Wang, M., Zuo, D. W., and He, L., 2004, “Temperature Measurement in High Speed Milling Ti6Al4V,” Key Eng. Mater., 259–260, pp. 804–808. [CrossRef]
Anagonye, A., and Stephenson, D. A., 2002, “Modeling Cutting Temperature for Turning Inserts With Various Tool Geometries and Materials,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124(3), pp. 544–552. [CrossRef]
Li, R., and Shih, A. J., 2006, “Finite Element Modeling of 3D Turning of Titanium,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 29(3–4), pp. 253–261. [CrossRef]
Karpat, Y., 2011, “Temperature Dependent Flow Softening of Titanium Alloy TI6Al4V: An Investigation Using Finite Element Simulation of Machining,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(4), pp. 737–749. [CrossRef]
Sima, M., and Ozel, T., 2010, “Modified Material Constitutive Models for Serrated Chip Formation Simulations and Experimental Validation in Machining of Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 50(11), pp. 943–960. [CrossRef]
Ozel, T., Sima, M., Srivastara, A. K., and Kaftanoglu, B., 2010, “Investigations on the Effects of Multi-Layered Coated Inserts in Machining Ti-6Al-4V Alloy With Experiments and Finite Element Simulations,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., 59(1), pp. 77–82. [CrossRef]
Stephenson, D. A., 1993, “Tool-Work Thermocouple Temperature Measurements—Theory and Implementation Issues,” J. Eng. Ind., 115(4), pp. 432–437. [CrossRef]
Jun, M., Suhas, S., DeVor, R., and Kapoor, S. G., 2008, “An Experimental Evaluation of an Atomization Based Cutting Fluid Application System for Micromachining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031118. [CrossRef]
Hoyne, A. C., Nath, C., and Kapoor, S. G., 2013, “Characterization of Fluid Film Produced by an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid (ACF) Spray System During Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(5), p. 051006. [CrossRef]
Nath, C., Kapoor, S. G., Srivastava, A. K., and Iverson, J., 2013, “Effect of Fluid Concentration in Titanium Machining With an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid (ACF) Spray System,” J. Manuf. Processes, 15(4), pp. 419–425. [CrossRef]
Nandy, A. K., Gowrishankar, M. C., and Paul, S., 2009, “Some Studies on High-Pressure Cooling in Turning of TI–6Al–4V Alloy With High Pressure Coolant Supplies,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(6), pp. 182–198. [CrossRef]
Nath, C., Kapoor, S. G., Srivastava, A. K., and Iverson, J., 2014, “Study of Droplet Spray Behavior of an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid (ACF) System for Machining Titanium Alloys,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Inserted thermocouple measurement setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Inserted thermocouple with copper guard

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tool–work thermocouple measurement setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tool–work thermocouple calibration curve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the ACF spray system [21] and (b) ACF spray parameters in turning setup [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Photograph of the setup with the ACF spray system in the CNC lathe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Tool–work thermocouple temperature measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Tool–chip contact length measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Inserted thermocouple temperature measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Chip lifting–falling cycle during titanium machining: (a) Chip lifting allows thin film to penetrate (less fluid excretes) and (b) chip falling causes more fluid excretion from the interface [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Friction coefficient development over machining for flood cooling and the ACF spray system

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In