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Research Papers

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Aircraft Panel Deformations During Riveting Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Gasser F. Abdelal

School of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Queen's University Belfast,
Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
e-mail: g.abdelal@qub.ac.uk

Georgia Georgiou

Virtual Engineering Centre,
University of Liverpool,
Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
e-mail: G.Georgiou@liverpool.ac.uk

Jonathan Cooper

Airbus Sir George White Chair
in Aerospace Engineering,
University of Bristol,
Bristol BS8 1TR, UK
e-mail: j.e.cooper@bristol.ac.uk

Antony Robotham

Senior Lecturer School of Engineering,
Auckland University of Technology,
Auckland 1010, New Zealand
e-mail: tony.robotham@aut.ac.nz

Andrew Levers

AIRBUS-UK Ltd.,
Chester CH4 0DR, UK
e-mail: Andy.levers@survitecgroup.com

Peter Lunt

AIRBUS-UK Ltd.,
Chester CH4 0DR, UK
e-mail: Peter.Lunt@Airbus.com

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 2, 2013; final manuscript received October 22, 2014; published online November 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(1), 011009 (Feb 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1417; doi: 10.1115/1.4028923 History: Received December 02, 2013; Revised October 22, 2014; Online November 26, 2014

In collaboration with Airbus-UK, the dimensional growth of aircraft panels while being riveted with stiffeners is investigated. Small panels are used in this investigation. The stiffeners have been fastened to the panels with rivets and it has been observed that during this operation the panels expand in the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been observed that the growth is variable and the challenge is to control the riveting process to minimize this variability. In this investigation, the assembly of the small panels and longitudinal stiffeners has been simulated using static stress and nonlinear explicit finite element models. The models have been validated against a limited set of experimental measurements; it was found that more accurate predictions of the riveting process are achieved using explicit finite element models. Yet, the static stress finite element model is more time efficient, and more practical to simulate hundreds of rivets and the stochastic nature of the process. Furthermore, through a series of numerical simulations and probabilistic analyses, the manufacturing process control parameters that influence panel growth have been identified. Alternative fastening approaches were examined and it was found that dimensional growth can be controlled by changing the design of the dies used for forming the rivets.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Deformed rivet dimensions and (b) Von Mises stress distribution on the single rivet sample along the countersink line

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Fig. 2

(a) Numerical and experimental [15] residual tangential stresses along the countersink line and (b) radial stresses along the countersink line

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Fig. 3

Nonlinear finite element model for simulating single rivet insertion

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Fig. 4

(a) Numerical (dashed line) and experimental (solid line) [15] residual tangential stresses along the countersink line and (b) radial stresses along the countersink line

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Fig. 5

Cross section of alternative head_die designs

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Fig. 6

Nonlinear finite element model for simulating single rivet insertion with alternative head_die designs

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Fig. 7

(a) Residual tangential stresses along the countersink line for three alternative head die designs. (b) Residual radial stresses along countersink line for three alternative head die designs.

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Fig. 8

Normal stresses along countersink line for three alternative head die designs

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Fig. 9

Displacement wave along countersink line for three alternative head die designs

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Fig. 10

Displacement wave along the countersink line for two alternative head die designs

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Fig. 11

Customized holding fixture for riveting small panels

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Fig. 12

Measurement locations along the X-axis and Y-axis

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Fig. 13

Mean growth of the small panel assemblies along the X-axis

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Fig. 14

Mean growth of the small panel assemblies along the Y-axis

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Fig. 15

Nonlinear finite element model for simulating the insertion of rivets on small panel assembly (type 1)

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Fig. 16

Deformed small panel assembly after the rivet insertion process. Stress (MPa × 10−3).

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Fig. 17

Deformed panel assembly after the rivet insertion process for an alternative head die design. Stress (MPa × 10−3).

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Fig. 18

An alternative riveting process with fixed head of the rivets. Stress (MPa × 10−3).

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Fig. 19

Finite element model of the small panel assembly (type 1) with minimum allowable rivet pitch distance

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Fig. 20

Von Mises stress distribution on small experimental panel (type 1) with minimum rivet pitch distance due to the riveting process; Stress (Pa)

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Fig. 21

Probability density function for small panel assembly (type 1), AA2024 (T351-T3) material type and minimum/maximum rivet pitch distances

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Fig. 22

Probability density function for small panel assembly (type 1), AA2024-AA2050 material type and minimum/maximum rivet pitch distances

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Fig. 23

Typical tensile and compressive stress–strain curves for 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plate at room temperature [21]

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Fig. 24

Typical tensile and compressive stress–strain curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy extrusion at room temperature [22]

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