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Research Papers

Arc Interruptions in Tandem Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Ruham Pablo Reis

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Federal University of Uberlândia,
Campus Santa Mônica,
Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121,
Bairro Santa Mônica,
Uberlândia, MG 38.400-902, Brazil
e-mail: ruhamreis@mecanica.ufu.br

Daniel Souza

School of Engineering,
Federal University of Rio Grande,
Campus Carreiros,
Av. Itália, km 8, Bairro Carreiros,
Rio Grande, RS 96.201-900, Brazil
e-mail: danielsouza@furg.br

Demostenes Ferreira Filho

School of Electrical,
Computer and Mechanical Engineering,
Federal University of Goiás, Setor
Leste Universitário,
Av. Universitária, 1488,
Goiânia, GO 74.605-010, Brazil
e-mail: demostenesferreira@ufg.br

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 14, 2013; final manuscript received September 22, 2014; published online November 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Wei Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(1), 011004 (Feb 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1259; doi: 10.1115/1.4028681 History: Received June 14, 2013; Revised September 22, 2014; Online November 26, 2014

In addition to electromagnetic attraction between the arcs in Tandem Pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW), arc interruptions, mostly in the trailing arc at low mean current levels, may also occur, which is a phenomenon not widely discussed in the welding field. These arc interruptions must be avoided, since they also represent interruptions in metal fusion and deposition during the welding process, leading to lack of fusion/penetration and/or deposition flaws, adding cost for repairing operations. To improve the understanding on arc interruptions in Tandem Pulsed GMAW and how the current pulsing synchronism between the arcs relates to this phenomenon, this work proposes to evaluate the influence of parameters of adjacent arcs (Tandem Pulsed GMAW) and also of a single arc (GTAW—gas tungsten arc welding), but similarly subjected to magnetic deflection, on the occurrence of arc interruptions/extinctions. High-speed filming was used to help understand the interruption/extinction mechanism. In the case of Tandem Pulsed GMAW, the pulses of current of the leading and trailing arcs need to be almost-in-phase to prevent interruptions in the trailing arc. The distance of 10 mm between the adjacent arcs helped reduce the incidence of trailing arc interruptions, yet keeping a sound weld visual quality. In the case of GTAW, the higher the electrical current flowing through the arcs and the shorter their lengths, the more they resist to the extinction. The trailing arc interruptions in Tandem Pulsed GMAW seem to be determined by the deflection and heat in this arc, and their prevention can be achieved by a balance between these two factors, which is reached by synchronized pulsing currents.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical electrical transient during an arc interruption in Tandem Pulsed GMAW (Adapted from Refs. [2] and [7])

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Fig. 2

Model for arc deflection in Tandem GMAW (Adapted from Refs. [2] and [7])

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Fig. 3

Schematic experimental rig used for evaluating the Tandem Pulsed GMAW arcs

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Fig. 4

Experimental rig used for evaluating the GTAW arcs

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Fig. 5

Delay effect on trailing arc interruptions and abnormal voltages in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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Fig. 6

Example of trailing arc interruption and abnormal voltage in Tandem Pulsed GMAW (delay = 8 ms)

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Fig. 7

Typical weld bead appearance for different pulse delays (regions of trailing arc interruptions indicated by arrows)

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Fig. 8

IWD effect on trailing arc interruptions and abnormal voltages in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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Fig. 9

Typical appearance and cross section of weld beads produced with 0.1 ms of delay and 10 mm of IWD in Tandem Pulsed GMAW (without trailing arc interruptions)

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Fig. 10

Welding current effect on the resistance to extinction of GTAW arcs (arc length = 10 mm)

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Fig. 11

Example of arc extinction in GTAW (welding current = 80 A)

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Fig. 12

Arc length effect on the resistance to the extinction of GTAW arcs (welding current = 50 A)

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Fig. 13

Extinction of arcs in GTAW for different arc lengths (welding current = 50 A)

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Fig. 14

General effect of the pulse delay on the incidence of trailing arc interruptions in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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Fig. 15

Trailing arc deflection in Tandem Pulsed GMAW predicted for different synchronism approaches (IWD = 10 mm; arc length = 5 mm; pulse current = 350 A; pulse time = 2 ms; base current = 50 A; base time = 14 ms)

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Fig. 16

Schematic contributions of the magnetic force and heat produced by the leading arc to the tendency for trailing arc interruptions in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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Fig. 17

Predicted trailing arc deflection as a function of the IWD in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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Fig. 18

Predicted trailing arc deflection as a function of the arc length in Tandem Pulsed GMAW

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