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Strategic Implications of Current Trends in Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Christiane Beyer

Mem. ASME
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
California State University,
Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd.,
Long Beach, CA 90840
e-mail: chris.beyer@csulb.edu

Depending on the process and machine manufacturer.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 16, 2014; final manuscript received September 13, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 064701 (Oct 24, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1225; doi: 10.1115/1.4028599 History: Received April 16, 2014; Revised September 13, 2014

Additive manufacturing (AM) has become a serious and potential game-changing method of manufacturing over the years since the first commercial technology for “Rapid Prototyping” in 1988. Even though we are advanced, the current accomplishments are still far from the level which can be expected in the future. Innovative approaches toward design are required to capture the full potential of this technology. This paper describes the advantages and possibilities of AM technologies, and how they can be used in various sectors (e.g., engineering, automotive, aerospace, medical, and consumer products, etc.) as alternative methods for manufacturing energy efficient parts with fewer raw materials. To take advantage of the capabilities of these technologies, new and enhanced design methods and procedures are required. This paper addresses strategic implications of widespread adoption of AM. It also reports how engineers need to change their thinking pattern to be able to use the full potential of the AM technologies. Engineers should be aware of the capabilities of the AM technologies and the available material selections to make the right decisions at the beginning of a design process. Also reported herein, in addition to building very complex shapes with various material mixtures, are the capabilities of fabricating lattice and hollow-core structures. Reduction of a product's weight is a great option for saving energy and cost, particularly for the automotive and aerospace sectors. However, it is still important to ensure the part has the necessary strength. The objective of the current research is to analyze and prove how certain shapes of cell structures influence the strength and flexibility of parts. Conclusion address the importance of understanding the strategic implications on AM for government officials, educators, researchers, and industrial leaders.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

General approach to design [1]

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of different additive layer bonding mechanism [21]

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Fig. 3

Application for AM Technologies [22]

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Fig. 4

Industrial Sector for AM [22]

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Fig. 5

Industrial growth: estimated revenues (in millions of dollar) for additive manufactured products and services worldwide [23]

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Fig. 6

NASA Robonaut 2 (“R2”), Wyle Labs' Integrated Science and Engineering Group in Houston [24]

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Fig. 7

Parts designed with Within software: optimized lightweight support part (top left); cranial flap implants (top right); radical heat exchanger (bottom left); pipe manifold (bottom right) [26]

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Fig. 8

Demonstration parts designed with Netfabb software [25]

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