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Research Papers

Freeform Vertical and Horizontal Fabrication of Alginate-Based Vascular-Like Tubular Constructs Using Inkjetting

[+] Author and Article Information
Changxue Xu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29634

Zhengyi Zhang, Kyle Christensen

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Yong Huang

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: yongh@ufl.edu

Jianzhong Fu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China

Roger R. Markwald

Department of Regenerative
Medicine and Cell Biology,
Medical University of South Carolina,
Charleston, SC 29425

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 18, 2014; final manuscript received September 5, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Darrell Wallace.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 061020 (Oct 24, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1230; doi: 10.1115/1.4028578 History: Received April 18, 2014; Revised September 05, 2014

Organ printing, among different tissue engineering innovations, is a freeform fabrication approach for making three-dimensional (3D) tissue and organ constructs using cellular spheroids or bioinks as building blocks. The capability to fabricate vascular-like tubular constructs is an important indicator of the overall feasibility of envisioned organ printing technology. In this study, vascular-like alginate tubes, which mimic typical vascular constructs, are fabricated both vertically and horizontally using drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjetting. Manufacturing-related challenges are different for the vertical and horizontal printing configurations. In general, the vertical printing configuration has instability or collapse/buckling problems and may experience some difficulty in fabricating complex constructs such as Y- or K-shaped constructs if there is no supporting material. The horizontal printing configuration may easily result in a deformed hollow cross section and may require extra effort to mitigate the undesired deformation. It is envisioned that the combination of vertical and horizontal printing provides an efficient and effective way to fabricate complex tubular constructs with both vertical and horizontal branching features.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of vertical printing configuration

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of horizontal printing configuration and (b) flow chart of horizontal printing protocol

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Fig. 3

Vertical printing of a tubular construct with an overhang

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Fig. 4

Horizontal printing of a tubular construct with an overhang

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Fig. 5

(a) Representative cross section of a straight tube printed horizontally, (b) schematics of designed and actual cross sections, and (c) tube printed using predictive compensation [17]

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Fig. 6

Free body diagram of a printed tube during horizontal printing (0≤α≤π/2)

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Fig. 7

Predicted and measured ΔY values

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