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Review Article

A Review on Process Monitoring and Control in Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Gustavo Tapia

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: gustapia06@tamu.edu

Alaa Elwany

Assistant Professor
Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: elwany@tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 12, 2014; final manuscript received September 3, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: David L. Bourell.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 060801 (Oct 24, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1162; doi: 10.1115/1.4028540 History: Received April 12, 2014; Revised September 03, 2014

There is consensus among both the research and industrial communities, and even the general public, that additive manufacturing (AM) processes capable of processing metallic materials are a set of game changing technologies that offer unique capabilities with tremendous application potential that cannot be matched by traditional manufacturing technologies. Unfortunately, with all what AM has to offer, the quality and repeatability of metal parts still hamper significantly their widespread as viable manufacturing processes. This is particularly true in industrial sectors with stringent requirements on part quality such as the aerospace and healthcare sectors. One approach to overcome this challenge that has recently been receiving increasing attention is process monitoring and real-time process control to enhance part quality and repeatability. This has been addressed by numerous research efforts in the past decade and continues to be identified as a high priority research goal. In this review paper, we fill an important gap in the literature represented by the absence of one single source that comprehensively describes what has been achieved and provides insight on what still needs to be achieved in the field of process monitoring and control for metal-based AM processes.

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Griffith, M., Schlienger, M., Harwell, L., Oliver, M., Baldwin, M., Ensz, M., Essien, M., Brooks, J., Robino, C., Smugeresky, J., Hofmeister, W., Wert, M., and Nelson, D., 1999, “Understanding Thermal Behavior in the LENS Process,” Mater. Des., 20(2), pp. 107–113. [CrossRef]
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Bernges, J., Kessler, B., and Schuermann, B., 2005, “Sensor Device for Detecting Radiation From the Region of a Zone of Interaction Between a Laser Beam and a Workpiece and Device for Monitoring a Laser Machining Operation and Laser Machining Head,” US Patent No. 11/115,244.
Fehrmann, B., and Hoebel, M., 2009, “Method of Controlled Remelting of or Laser Metal Forming on the Surface of an Article,” US Patent No. 7,586,061.
Zhong, M., Liu, W., Ning, G., Yang, L., and Chen, Y., 2004, “Laser Direct Manufacturing of Tungsten Nickel Collimation Component,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 147(2), pp. 167–173. [CrossRef]
Hua, T., Jing, C., Xin, L., Fengying, Z., and Weidong, H., 2008, “Research on Molten Pool Temperature in the Process of Laser Rapid Forming,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 198(1), pp. 454–462. [CrossRef]
Lin, J., and Steen, W., 1998, “An In-process Method for the Inverse Estimation of the Powder Catchment Efficiency During Laser Cladding,” Opt. Laser Technol., 30(2), pp. 77–84. [CrossRef]
Zhu, G., Li, D., Zhang, A., Pi, G., and Tang, Y., 2011, “The Influence of Standoff Variations on the Forming Accuracy in Laser Direct Metal Deposition,” Rapid Prototyping J., 17(2), pp. 98–106. [CrossRef]
Zhu, G., Li, D., Zhang, A., Pi, G., and Tang, Y., 2012, “The Influence of Laser and Powder Defocusing Characteristics on the Surface Quality in Laser Direct Metal Deposition,” Opt. Laser Technol., 44(2), pp. 349–356. [CrossRef]
Leong, K., Ho, K., and Han, H., 2005, “Monitoring Laser Cladding,” 24th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, ICALEO, pp. 895–899.
Tan, H., Chen, J., Zhang, F., Lin, X., and Huang, W., 2010, “Estimation of Laser Solid Forming Process Based on Temperature Measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol., 42(1), pp. 47–54. [CrossRef]
Li, L., and Steen, W. M., 1990, “In-Process Clad Quality Monitoring Using Optical Method,” Proceedings SPIE 1279, Laser-Assisted Processing II, International Society for Optics and Photonics, pp. 89–100.
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Lee, H.-K., 2008, “Effects of the Cladding Parameters on the Deposition Efficiency in Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Cladding,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 202(1), pp. 321–327. [CrossRef]
Labudovic, M., Hu, D., and Kovacevic, R., 2003, “A Three Dimensional Model for Direct Laser Metal Powder Deposition and Rapid Prototyping,” J. Mater. Sci., 38(1), pp. 35–49. [CrossRef]
Ye, R., Smugeresky, J. E., Zheng, B., Zhou, Y., and Lavernia, E. J., 2006, “Numerical Modeling of the Thermal Behavior During the LENS Process,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 428(1), pp. 47–53. [CrossRef]
Alimardani, M., Toyserkani, E., and Huissoon, J. P., 2007, “Three-Dimensional Numerical Approach for Geometrical Prediction of Multilayer Laser Solid Freeform Fabrication Process,” J. Laser Appl., 19(1). [CrossRef]
Han, L., Phatak, K., and Liou, F., 2004, “Modeling of Laser Cladding With Powder Injection,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 35(6), pp. 1139–1150. [CrossRef]
Tan, H., Chen, J., Zhang, F., Lin, X., and Huang, W., 2010, “Process Analysis for Laser Solid Forming of Thin-Wall Structure,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 50(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Jendrzejewski, R., Kreja, I., and Śliwiński, G., 2004, “Temperature Distribution in Laser-Clad Multi-Layers,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 379(1), pp. 313–320. [CrossRef]
Wang, L., Felicelli, S. D., and Craig, J. E., 2009, “Experimental and Numerical Study of the LENS Rapid Fabrication Process,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 131(4), p. 041019. [CrossRef]
Qian, L., Mei, J., Liang, J., and Wu, X., 2005, “Influence of Position and Laser Power on Thermal History and Microstructure of Direct Laser Fabricated Ti–6Al–4V Samples,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 21(5), pp. 597–605. [CrossRef]
Hu, Y., Chen, C., and Mukherjee, K., 2000, “Measurement of Temperature Distributions During Laser Cladding Process,” J. Laser Appl., 12(3), pp. 126–130. [CrossRef]
Kelly, J. K., 2002, “Direct-Metal-Deposition (DMD) Nozzle Fault Detection Using Temperature Measurements,” US Patent No. 6,423,926.
Lin, J., and Steen, W., 1998, “Design Characteristics and Development of a Nozzle for Coaxial Laser Cladding,” J. Laser Appl., 10(2), pp. 55–63. [CrossRef]
Hu, X. D., Kong, F. Z., and Yao, J. H., 2011, “Development of Monitoring and Control System for Laser Remanufacturing,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 44, pp. 81–85.
Jeantette, F. P., Keicher, D. M., Romero, J. A., and Schanwald, L. P., 2000, “Method and System for Producing Complex-Shape Objects,” US Patent No. 6,046,426.
Smurov, I., Doubenskaia, M., and Zaitsev, A., 2012, “Complex Analysis of Laser Cladding Based on Comprehensive Optical Diagnostics and Numerical Simulation,” Phys. Procedia, 39, pp. 743–752. [CrossRef]
Balu, P., Leggett, P., and Kovacevic, R., 2012, “Parametric Study on a Coaxial Multi-Material Powder Flow in Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(7), pp. 1598–1610. [CrossRef]
Tang, L., and Landers, R. G., 2010, “Melt Pool Temperature Control for Laser Metal Deposition Processes—Part I: Online Temperature Control,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Tang, L., and Landers, R. G., 2010, “Melt Pool Temperature Control for Laser Metal Deposition Processes—Part II: Layer-to-Layer Temperature Control,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(1), p. 011011. [CrossRef]
Boddu, M. R., Musti, S., Landers, R. G., Agarwal, S., and Liou, F. W., 2001, “Empirical Modeling and Vision Based Control for Laser Aided Metal Deposition Process,” Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 452–459.
Song, L., Bagavath-Singh, V., Dutta, B., and Mazumder, J., 2012, “Control of Melt Pool Temperature and Deposition Height During Direct Metal Deposition Process,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 58(1–4), pp. 247–256. [CrossRef]
Mazumder, J., Schifferer, A., and Choi, J., 1999, “Direct Materials Deposition: Designed Macro and Microstructure,” Mater. Res. Innovations, 3(3), pp. 118–131. [CrossRef]
Mazumder, J., Dutta, D., Kikuchi, N., and Ghosh, A., 2000, “Closed Loop Direct Metal Deposition: Art to Part,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 34(4), pp. 397–414. [CrossRef]
Hua, Y., and Choi, J., 2005, “Feedback Control Effects on Dimensions and Defects of H13 Tool Steel by Direct Metal Deposition Process,” J. Laser Appl., 17(2), pp. 118–126. [CrossRef]
Mazumder, J., Skszek, T., Kelly, J. K., and Choi, J., 2002, “Production of Overhang, Undercut, and Cavity Structures Using Direct Metal Depostion,” US Patent No. 6,410,105.
Kelly, J. K., and Mazumder, J., 2005, “Closed-Loop, Rapid Manufacturing of Three-Dimensional Components Using Direct Metal Deposition,” US Patent No. 6,925,346.
Koch, J., and Mazumder, J., 2000, “Apparatus and Methods for Monitoring and Controlling Multi-Layer Laser Cladding,” US Patent No. 6,122,564.
Mazumder, J., and Song, L., 2008, “Real-Time Implementation of Generalized Predictive Algorithm for Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) Process Control,” US Patent No. 12/130,351.
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Toyserkani, E., Khajepour, A., and Corbin, S., 2004, “System and Method for Closed-Loop Control of Laser Cladding by Powder Injection,” US Patent No. 10/697,552.
Toyserkani, E., Khajepour, A., and Corbin, S., 2006, “Combines Laser Cladding Technique Along With Automated Direct Feedback Control to Achieve a Good Quality Clad in Terms of Dimensional and Metallurgical Characteristics,” US Patent No. 7,043,330.
Suh, J., 2008, “Method and System for Real-Time Monitoring and Controlling Height of Deposit by Using Image Photographing and Image Processing Technology in Laser Cladding and Laser-Aided Direct Metal Manufacturing Process,” US Patent No. 10/495,185.
Liu, J., and Li, L., 2004, “In-time Motion Adjustment in Laser Cladding Manufacturing Process for Improving Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish of the Formed Part,” Opt. Laser Technol., 36(6), pp. 477–483. [CrossRef]
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Medranoa, A., Folkes, J., Segala, J., and Pashbya, I., 2009, “Fibre Laser Metal Deposition With Wire: Parameters Study and Temperature Monitoring System,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7131.
Heralić, A., Christiansson, A.-K., Ottosson, M., and Lennartson, B., 2010, “Increased Stability in Laser Metal Wire Deposition Through Feedback From Optical Measurements,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 48(4), pp. 478–485. [CrossRef]
Heralić, A., Christiansson, A.-K., and Lennartson, B., 2012, “Height Control of Laser Metal-Wire Deposition Based on Iterative Learning Control and 3D Scanning,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 50(9), pp. 1230–1241. [CrossRef]
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Stecker, S., and Wollenhaupt, P. E., 2013, “Electron Beam Layer Manufacturing Using Scanning Electron Monitored Closed Loop Control,” US Patent No. 8,598,523.
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Kelly, G. S., Advani, S. G., Gillespie, J. W., Jr., and Bogetti, T. A., 2013, “A Model to Characterize Acoustic Softening During Ultrasonic Consolidation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(11), pp. 1835–1845. [CrossRef]
Kelly, G. S., Just, M. S., Jr., Advani, S. G., and Gillespie, J. W., Jr., 2014, “Energy and Bond Strength Development During Ultrasonic Consolidation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(8), pp. 1665–1672. [CrossRef]
Sriraman, M., Gonser, M., Fujii, H. T., Babu, S., and Bloss, M., 2011, “Thermal Transients During Processing of Materials by Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(10), pp. 1650–1657. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y., Janaki Ram, G., and Stucker, B., 2009, “Bond Formation and Fiber Embedment During Ultrasonic Consolidation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(10), pp. 4915–4924. [CrossRef]
Hong, Y., Zhou, J. G., and Yao, D., 2014, “Porogen Templating Processes: An Overview,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(3), p. 031013. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Number of cited research efforts on the monitoring and control of metal-based AM by year

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