Research Papers

Three-Dimensional Temperature Gradient Mechanism in Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V

[+] Author and Article Information
C. H. Fu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Alabama,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

Y. B. Guo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Alabama,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
e-mail: yguo@eng.ua.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 20, 2014; final manuscript received September 3, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Darrell Wallace.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 061004 (Oct 24, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4028539 History: Received March 20, 2014; Revised September 03, 2014

Selective laser melting (SLM) is widely used in making three-dimensional functional parts layer by layer. Temperature magnitude and history during SLM directly determine the molten pool dimensions and surface integrity. However, due to the transient nature and small size of the molten pool, the temperature gradient and the molten pool size are challenging to measure and control. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) simulation model has been developed to simulate multilayer deposition of Ti-6Al-4 V in SLM. A physics-based layer buildup approach coupled with a surface moving heat flux was incorporated into the modeling process. The melting pool shape and dimensions were predicted and experimentally validated. Temperature gradient and thermal history in the multilayer buildup process was also obtained. Furthermore, the influences of process parameters and materials on the melting process were evaluated.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Waterman, N. A., and Dickens, P., 1994, “Rapid Product Development in the USA, Europe and Japan,” World Class Des. Manuf., 1(3), pp. 27–36. [CrossRef]
Levy, G. N., Schindel, R., and Kruth, J. P., 2003, “Rapid Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling With Layer Manufacturing (LM) Technologies, State of the Art and Future Perspectives,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 52(2), pp. 589–609. [CrossRef]
Guo, N., and Leu, M., 2013, “Additive Manufacturing: Technology, Applications and Research Needs,” Front. Mech. Eng., 8(3), pp. 215–243. [CrossRef]
Vandenbroucke, B., and Kruth, J., 2007, “Selective Laser Melting of Biocompatible Metals for Rapid Manufacturing of Medical Parts,” Rapid Prototyping J., 13(4), pp. 196–203. [CrossRef]
Clare, A., Chalker, P., Davies, S., Sutcliffe, C., and Tsopanos, S., 2008, “Selective Laser Melting of High Aspect Ratio 3D Nickel–Titanium Structures Two Way Trained for MEMS Applications,” Int. J. Mech. Mater. Des., 4(2), pp. 181–187. [CrossRef]
Hollander, D. A., von Walter, M., Wirtz, T., Sellei, R., Schmidt-Rohlfing, B., Paar, O., and Erli, H., 2006, “Structural, Mechanical and in Vitro Characterization of Individually Structured Ti–6Al–4V Produced by Direct Laser Forming,” Biomaterials, 27(7), pp. 955–963. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rochus, P., Plesseria, J.-Y., Van Elsen, M., Kruth, J.-P., Carrus, R., and Dormal, T., 2007, “New Applications of Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Manufacturing (RP/RM) Technologies for Space Instrumentation,” Acta Astronaut., 61(1–6), pp. 352–359. [CrossRef]
Wong, M., Tsopanos, S., Sutcliffe, C., and Owen, L., 2007, “Selective Laser Melting of Heat Transfer Devices,” Rapid Prototyping J., 13(5), pp. 291–297. [CrossRef]
Vasinonta, A., Beuth, J. L., and Griffith, M., 2007, “Process Maps for Predicting Residual Stress and Melt Pool Size in the Laser-Based Fabrication of Thin-Walled Structures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 129(1), pp. 101–109. [CrossRef]
Edwards, P., O'Conner, A., and Ramulu, M., 2013, “Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Components: Properties and Performance,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061016. [CrossRef]
Tsopanos, S., Mines, R., McKown, S., Shen, Y., Cantwell, W., Brooks, W., and Sutcliffe, C., 2010, “The Influence of Processing Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Selectively Laser Melted Stainless Steel Microlattice Structures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(4), p. 041011. [CrossRef]
Kruth, J.-P., Levy, G., Klocke, F., and Childs, T. H. C., 2007, “Consolidation Phenomena in Laser and Powder-Bed Based Layered Manufacturing,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 56(2), pp. 730–759. [CrossRef]
Yadroitsev, I., Gusarov, A., Yadroitsava, I., and Smurov, I., 2010, “Single Track Formation in Selective Laser Melting of Metal Powders,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 210(12), pp. 1624–1631. [CrossRef]
Tolochko, N. K., Khlopkov, Y. V., Mozzharov, S. E., Ignatiev, M. B., Laoui, T., and Titov, V. I., 2000, “Absorptance of Powder Materials Suitable for Laser Sintering,” Rapid Prototyping J., 6(3), pp. 155–161. [CrossRef]
Gusarov, A., and Kovalev, E., 2009, “Model of Thermal Conductivity in Powder Beds,” Phys. Rev. B, 80(2), p. 024202. [CrossRef]
Thijs, L., Verhaeghe, F., Craeghs, T., Humbeeck, J. V., and Kruth, J., 2010, “A Study of the Microstructural Evolution During Selective Laser Melting of Ti–6Al–4V,” Acta Mater., 58(9), pp. 3303–3312. [CrossRef]
Tang, L., and Landers, R. G., 2010, “Melt Pool Temperature Control for Laser Metal Deposition Processes—Part I: Online Temperature Control,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Roberts, I. A., Wang, C. J., Esterlein, R., Stanford, M., and Mynors, D. J., 2009, “A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Temperature Field during Laser Melting of Metal Powders in Additive Layer Manufacturing,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(12–13), pp. 916–923. [CrossRef]
Dong, L., Makradi, A., Ahzi, S., and Remond, Y., 2009, “Three-Dimensional Transient Finite Element Analysis of the Selective Laser Sintering Process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(2), pp. 700–706. [CrossRef]
Hussein, A., Hao, L., Yan, C., and Everson, R., 2013, “Finite Element Simulation of the Temperature and Stress Fields in Single Layers Built Without-Support in Selective Laser Melting,” Mater. Des., 52(0), pp. 638–647. [CrossRef]
Patil, R. B., and Yadava, V., 2007, “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Single Metallic Powder Layer During Metal Laser Sintering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(7–8), pp. 1069–1080. [CrossRef]
Morsbach, C., Höges, S., and Meiners, W., 2011, “Modeling the Selective Laser Melting of Polylactide Composite Materials,” J. Laser Appl., 23(1), p. 012005. [CrossRef]
Boivineau, M., Cagran, C., Doytier, D., Eyraud, V., Nadal, M., Wilthan, B., and Pottlacher, G., 2006, “Thermophysical Properties of Solid and Liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) Alloy,” Int. J. Thermophys., 27(2), pp. 507–529. [CrossRef]
Ding, J., Colegrove, P., Mehnen, J., Ganguly, S., Sequeira Almeida, P. M., Wang, F., and Williams, S., 2011, “Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacturing Process on Large Multi-Layer Parts,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 50(12), pp. 3315–3322. [CrossRef]
Dai, K., and Shaw, L., 2004, “Thermal and Mechanical Finite Element Modeling of Laser Forming From Metal and Ceramic Powders,” Acta Mater., 52(1), pp. 69–80. [CrossRef]
Verhaeghe, F., Craeghs, T., Heulens, J., and Pandelaers, L., 2009, “A Pragmatic Model for Selective Laser Melting With Evaporation,” Acta Mater., 57(20), pp. 6006–6012. [CrossRef]
Boyer, R., and Collings, E., 1993, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Kruth, J. P., Froyen, L., Van Vaerenbergh, J., Mercelis, P., Rombouts, M., and Lauwers, B., 2004, “Selective Laser Melting of Iron-Based Powder,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 149(1–3), pp. 616–622. [CrossRef]
Jamshidinia, M., Kong, F., and Kovacevic, R., 2013, “Numerical Modeling of Heat Distribution in the Electron Beam Melting® of Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061010. [CrossRef]
Dai, K., and Shaw, L., 2002, “Distortion Minimization of Laser-Processed Components Through Control of Laser Scanning Patterns,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, 8(5), pp. 270–276. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) SLM experimental setup and (b) process principle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simulation schematic of SLM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Heat flux magnitude for four simulation cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Representative temperature contour and (b) molten pool geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of laser power on melting depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of laser power on melting width

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of laser power on melting length

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of laser power on molten pool volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature gradient in layer depth direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperature gradient in layer width direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature gradient in laser scanning direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature history of center point on layer top in first scan




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In