Research Papers

Toward Metamodels for Composable and Reusable Additive Manufacturing Process Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul Witherell

Engineering Laboratory,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: paul.witherell@nist.gov

Shaw Feng

Engineering Laboratory,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: shaw.feng@nist.gov

Timothy W. Simpson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: tws8@psu.edu

David B. Saint John

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: dbs198@psu.edu

Pan Michaleris

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: pxm32@psu.edu

Zi-Kui Liu

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail:  liu@matse.psu.edu

Long-Qing Chen

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: lqc3@psu.edu

Rich Martukanitz

Applied Research Laboratory,
State College,
PA 16802
e-mail: rxm44@arl.psu.edu

Class names are capital and in bold face; property names are italic.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 9, 2014; final manuscript received September 2, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

This material is declared a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 061025 (Oct 24, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1275; doi: 10.1115/1.4028533 History: Received May 09, 2014; Revised September 02, 2014

In this paper, we advocate for a more harmonized approach to model development for additive manufacturing (AM) processes, through classification and metamodeling that will support AM process model composability, reusability, and integration. We review several types of AM process models and use the direct metal powder bed fusion AM process to provide illustrative examples of the proposed classification and metamodel approach. We describe how a coordinated approach can be used to extend modeling capabilities by promoting model composability. As part of future work, a framework is envisioned to realize a more coherent strategy for model development and deployment.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bourell, D. L., Leu, M. C., and Rosen, D. W., 2009, Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing, The University of Texas, Austin, TX.
Canessa, E., Fonda, C., and Zennaro, M., 2013, “Low-Cost 3D Printing: For Science, Education & Sustainable Development,” ICTP—The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics.
Friedman, T. L., 2013, When Complexity is Free, The New York Times, New York.
Petrovic, V., Vicente Haro Gonzalez, J., Jorda Ferrando, O., Delgado Gordillo, J., Ramon Blasco Puchades, J., and Portoles Grinan, L., 2011, “Additive Layered Manufacturing: Sectors of Industrial Application Shown Through Case Studies,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 49(4), pp. 1061–1079. [CrossRef]
Kobryn, P., Ontko, N., Perkins, L., and Tiley, J., 2006, Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Alloys for Aircraft Structures, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Hopkinson, N., Hague, R., and Dickens, P., 2006, Rapid Manufacturing: An Industrial Revolution for the Digital Age, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
Mahamood, R. M., Akinlabi, E. T., Shukla, M., and Pityana, S., 2013, “Characterizing the Effect of Laser Power Density on Microstructure, Microhardness, and Surface Finish of Laser Deposited Titanium Alloy,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 064502. [CrossRef]
2013, “Accelerated Certification of Additively Manufactured Metals,” https://manufacturing.llnl.gov/additive-manufacturing/accelerated-certification
2013, Measurement Science Roadmap for Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing, Prepared by Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce.
Gockel, J., and Beuth, J., 2013, “Understanding Ti-6Al-4V Microstructure Control in Additive Manufacturing via Process Maps,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, Austin, TX, Aug. 12–14.
Pal, D., Patil, N., Nikoukar, M., Zeng, K., Kutty, K. H., and Stucker, B. E., 2013, “An Integrated Approach to Cyber-Enabled Additive Manufacturing Using Physics Based, Coupled Multi-Scale Process Modeling,” Proceedings of SFF Symposium, Austin, TX, Aug. 12–14, pp. 1–18.
Beuth, J., Fox, J., Gockel, J., Montgomery, C., Yang, R., Qiao, H., Soylemez, E., Reeseewatt, P., Anvari, A., and Narra, S., 2013, “Process Mapping for Qualification Across Multiple Direct Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes,” Proceedings of SFF Symposium., Austin, TX, Aug. 12–14.
Rombouts, M., Kruth, J., Froyen, L., and Mercelis, P., 2006, “Fundamentals of Selective Laser Melting of Alloyed Steel Powders,” Ann. CIRP, 55(1), pp. 187–192. [CrossRef]
Kruth, J., Levy, G., Klocke, F., and Childs, T., 2007, “Consolidation Phenomena in Laser and Powder-Bed Based Layered Manufacturing,” Ann. CIRP, 56(2), pp. 730–759. [CrossRef]
Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W., and Stucker, B., 2009, Additive Manufacturing, Springer, New York.
Wolhers, T., 2013, Wohlers Report 2013.
Paul, R., Anand, S., and Gerner, F., 2014, “Effect of Thermal Deformation on Part Errors in Metal Powder Based Additive Manufacturing Processes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(3), p. 031009. [CrossRef]
Edwards, P., O'Conner, A., and Ramulu, M., 2013, “Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Components: Properties and Performance,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061016. [CrossRef]
Attar, E., 2011, “Simulation of Selective Electron Beam Melting Processes,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen and Nuremberg, Germany.
Yadoitsev, I., 2009, Selective Laser Melting—Direct Manufacturing of 3D-Objects by Selective Laser Melting of Metal Powders, Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, Germany.
Labudovi, M., and Kovacevic, D., 2003, “A Three Dimensional Model for Direct Laser Metal Powder Deposition and Rapid Prototyping,” J. Mater. Sci., 38(1), pp. 35–49. [CrossRef]
Zeng, K., Pal, D., and Stucker, B., 2012, “A Review of Thermal Analysis Methods in Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting,” Proceedings of Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Austin, TX.
Rombouts, M., Froyen, L., Gusarov, A., Bentefour, E., and Glorieux, C., 2005, “Light Extinction in Metallic Powder Beds: Correlation With Powder Structure,” J. Appl. Phys., 98(1), p. 013533. [CrossRef]
Eagar, T., and Tsai, N., 1983, “Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources,” Weld. J., 62(12), pp. 346-s–355-s.
Tolochko, N., Laoui, T., Khlopkov, Y., Mozzharov, S., Titov, V., and Ignatiev, M., 2000, “Absorptance of Powder Materials Suitable for Laser Sintering,” Rapid Prototyping J., 6(3), pp. 155–160. [CrossRef]
Guasarov, A., Laoui, T., Froyen, L., and Titov, V., 2003, “Contact Thermal Conductivity of a Powder Bed in Selective Laser Sintering,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(6), pp. 1103–1109. [CrossRef]
Shiomi, M., Yoshidome, A., Abe, F., and Osakada, K., 1999, “Finite Element Analysis of Melting and Solidifying Processes in Laser Rapid Prototyping of Metallic Powders,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 39(2), pp. 237–252. [CrossRef]
Chen, W., Yang, Y., and Lee, H., 2007, “Estimating the Absorptivity in Laser Processing by Inverse Methodology,” Appl. Math. Comput., 190(1), pp. 712–721. [CrossRef]
Guasarov, A., and Kruth, J., 2005, “Modelling of Radiation Transfer in Metallic Powders at Laser Treatment,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(16), pp. 3423–3434. [CrossRef]
Gusarov, A., and Smurov, I., 2010, “Modeling the Interaction of Laser Radiation With Powder Bed at Selective Laser Melting,” Phys. Proc., 5(Part B), pp. 381–394. [CrossRef]
Michaleris, P., Dantzig, J., and Tortorelli, D., 1999, “Minimization of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures,” Weld. J.-New York, 78(11), pp. 361-s–366-s.
Agarwala, M., Bourell, D., Beaman, J., Marcus, H., and Barlow, J., 1995, “Direct Selective Laser Sintering of Metals,” Rapid Prototyping J., 1(1), pp. 26–36. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, I., and Xu, X., 2003, “Heat Transfer in Femtosecond Laser Processing of Metal,” J. Numer. Heat Transfer A, 44(3), pp. 219–232. [CrossRef]
Cline, H., and Anthony, T., 1997, “Heat Treating and Melting Material With a Scanning Laser or Electron Beam,” J. Appl. Phys., 48(9), pp. 3895–3900. [CrossRef]
Yang, L., Peng, X., and Wang, B., 2001, “Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Molten Pool During Laser Processing,” Heat Mass Transfer, 44(23), pp. 4465–4473. [CrossRef]
Sammons, P. M., Bristow, D. A., and Landers, R. G., 2013, “Height Dependent Laser Metal Deposition Process Modeling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(5), p. 054501. [CrossRef]
Xiao, B., and Zhang, Y., 2007, “Marangoni and Buoyancy Effects on Direct Metal Laser Sintering With a Moving Laser Beam,” J. Numer. Heat Transfer A, 51(8), pp. 715–733. [CrossRef]
Aggarangsi, P., Beuth, J. L., and Gill, D. D., 2004, “Transient Changes in Melt Pool Size in Laser Additive Manufacturing Processes,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, University of Texas, Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, Aug. 2–4, pp. 163–174.
Zhang, Y., and Faghri, A., 1998, “Melting and Resolidification of a Subcooled Mixed Powder Bed With Moving Gaussian Heat Source,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120(4), pp. 883–891. [CrossRef]
Williams, J., and Deckard, C., 1998, “Advances in Modeling the Effects of Selected Parameters on the SLS Process,” Rapid Prototyping J., 4(2), pp. 90–100. [CrossRef]
Chen, T., and Zhang, Y., 2003, “Analysis of Melting in a Mixed Metal Powder Bed With Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Heat Flux Heating,” ASME Paper No. HT2003-47289. [CrossRef]
Pinkerton, A., and Li, L., 2004, “Modelling the Geometry of a Moving Laser Melt Pool and Deposition Track via Energy and Mass Balances,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 37(14), pp. 1885–1895. [CrossRef]
Konrad, C., Zhang, Y., and Xiao, B., 2005, “Analysis of Melting and Resolidification in a Two-Component Metal Powder Bed Subjected to Temporal Gaussian Heat Flux,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(19–20), pp. 3932–3944. [CrossRef]
Zhou, W., Loney, D., Fedorov, A., Degertekin, F., and Rosen, D., 2013, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Multiple Droplet Interactions During Impingement on the Substrate,” The 24th Annual International Solid Free Form Fabrication Symposium Austin, TX, Aug. 12–14, pp. 606–630.
Chen, L.-Q., 2002, “Phase-Field Models for Microstructure Evolution,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 32(1), pp. 113–140. [CrossRef]
Bontha, S., Klingbeil, N. W., Kobryn, P. A., and Fraser, H. L., 2006, “Thermal Process Maps for Predicting Solidification Microstructure in Laser Fabrication of Thin-Wall Structures,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 178(1-3), pp. 135–142. [CrossRef]
Shiomi, M., Osakada, K., Nakamura, K., Yamashita, T., and Abe, F., 2004, “Residual Stress Within Metallic Model Made by Selective Laser Melting Process,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 53(1), pp. 195–198. [CrossRef]
Mercelis, P., and Kruth, J.-P., 2006, “Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting,” Rapid Prototyping J., 12(5), pp. 254–265. [CrossRef]
Jouault, F., and Bézivin, J., 2006, “KM3: A DSL for Metamodel Specification,” Formal Methods for Open Object-Based Distributed Systems, Springer, New York, pp. 171–185. [CrossRef]
Gardner, T., Griffin, C., Koehler, J., and Hauser, R., 2003, “A Review of OMG MOF 2.0 Query/Views/Transformations Submissions and Recommendations Towards the Final Standard,” Proceedings of MetaModelling for MDA Workshop, Citeseer, York, UK, Nov. 24–25, pp. 178–197.
2004, “OWL Web Ontology Language Overview,” W3C Recommendation.
Roache, P. J., 1998, Verification and Validation in Computational Science and Engineering, Hermosa, Albuquerque, NM.
Knupp, P., and Salari, K., 2010, Verification of Computer Codes in Computational Science and Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Classification of AM process models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Proposed structure of AM model classification

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Ontology for powder bed fusion models




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In