Research Papers

Selective Laser Melting of Crack-Free High Density M2 High Speed Steel Parts by Baseplate Preheating

[+] Author and Article Information
Karolien Kempen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Leuven (KU Leuven),
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: karolien.kempen@kuleuven.be

Bey Vrancken

Department of Materials Engineering,
University of Leuven (KU Leuven),
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: bey.vrancken@kuleuven.be

Sam Buls

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Leuven (KU Leuven),
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: sam.buls@kuleuven.be

Lore Thijs

LayerWise NV,
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: lore.thijs@layerwise.com

Jan Van Humbeeck

Department of Materials Engineering,
University of Leuven (KU Leuven),
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: jan.vanhumbeeck@kuleuven.be

Jean-Pierre Kruth

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Leuven (KU Leuven),
Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: jean-pierre.kruth@kuleuven.be

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 15, 2014; final manuscript received September 1, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: David L. Bourell.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 061026 (Oct 24, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1285; doi: 10.1115/1.4028513 History: Received May 15, 2014; Revised September 01, 2014

Cracks and delamination, resulting from residual stresses, are a barrier in the world of additive manufacturing and selective laser melting (SLM) that prohibits the use of many metals in this field. By preheating the baseplate, thermal gradients are lowered and stresses can be reduced. In this work, some initial tests were performed with M2 high speed steel (HSS). The influence of preheating on density and mechanical and physical properties is investigated. The paper shows many promising results for the production of SLM parts in materials that are very sensitive to crack formation and delamination. When using a preheating of 200 °C, crack-free M2 HSS parts were produced with a relative density of 99.8%.

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Fig. 2

M2 HSS parts produced by SLM, without preheating the baseplate

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Fig. 1

SEM image of M2 HSS powder

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Fig. 3

The formation of residual stresses due to thermal expansion of underlying layers

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Fig. 4

Schematic overview of the preheating module

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Fig. 5

M2 HSS parts produced with a preheating temperature of 90 °C (left), 150 °C (middle), and 200 °C (right)

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Fig. 11

Hardness of M2 HSS SLM parts compared to conventionally cast parts

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Fig. 12

Ultimate tensile strength and elongation at fracture for three types of tensile bars

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Fig. 9

Influence of preheating temperature and remelting on top surface roughness

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Fig. 10

Top surface of parts produced with P = 105 W and v = 500 mm/s. Top: no remelting, remaining porosity indicated by red circles. Bottom: remelting at 200 mm/s.

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Fig. 8

Density optimization of M2 HSS parts produced with and without remelting of every layer, at two different preheating temperatures



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