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Research Papers

Fabrication of Biological Microfluidics Using a Digital Microfabrication System

[+] Author and Article Information
Qudus Hamid

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Drexel University,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mail: qh25@drexel.edu

Chengyang Wang, Jessica Snyder

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Drexel University,
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Yu Zhao

Mechanical Engineering and
Biomanufacturing Research Institute,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100000, China

Wei Sun

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Drexel University,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Mechanical Engineering and
Biomanufacturing Research Institute,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100000, China
Shenzhen Biomanufacturing
Engineering Laboratory,
Shenzhen, Guangdong 518021, China
e-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 27, 2014; final manuscript received August 19, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(6), 061001 (Oct 24, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4028419 History: Received February 27, 2014; Revised August 19, 2014

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies illustrate the potential for many applications in the field of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and life sciences. The fabrication of tissue models integrates the multidisciplinary field of life sciences and engineering. Presently, monolayer cell cultures are frequently used to investigate potential anticancer agents. These monolayer cultures give limited feedback on the effects of the micro-environment. A micro-environment, which mimics that of the target tissue, will eliminate the limitations of the traditional mainstays of tissue research. The fabrication of such micro-environment requires a thorough investigation of the actual target organ, and or tissue. Conventional MEMS technologies are developed for the fabrication of integrated circuits on silicon wafers. Conventional MEMS technologies are very expensive and are not developed for biological applications. The digital micromirroring microfabrication (DMM) system eliminates the need for an expensive chrome mask by incorporating a dynamic mask-less fabrication technique. The DMM is designed to utilize its digital micromirrors to fabricate of biological devices. This digital microfabrication system provides a platform for the fabrication of economic biological microfluidics that is specifically designed to mimic the in vivo conditions of the tissue of interest. Investigations portrayed in this paper demonstrate the DMM capabilities to develop biological microfluidics. Though the applications of the DMM are extensive, the simple sinusoidal microfluidic characterized in this paper illustrates the DMM capabilities to develop biological microfluidic chips.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Applications of the dynamic DMM system

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Fig. 2

(a) An image of the DMM with its major components labeled. (b) An image of the multinozzle biologics deposition system with its major components labeled. (c) A schematic of light projected onto the DMM's digital mirror. The schematic shows the division of the light source to project the pattern. The light for the projected pattern is labeled as “desired projection” and the unwanted light is labeled as “undesired projections.” (d) A schematic of the PDMS base and lid with their respective major components labeled. (e) A macroscopic image of the SU-8 microchannels fabricated into the PDMS base/platform. (f) An image illustrating the nozzle of the multinozzle biologics deposition system printing cells into the chip's microchannel.

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Fig. 3

14 day cell proliferation study of treated and untreated open and closed microfluidic chips

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Fig. 4

(a) A fluorescence image, taken at 14 days after cells were seeded into the microfluidic chip showing live cell stained green and dead cells stained red. (b) A confocal image, taken 24 h after cells were seeded into the microfluidic chips showing the nuclei (stain bright green) and the cytoplasm (stain green) of the cells in the channel. (c) An SEM image, showing an in-depth view of the cell morphology within the channels. (Figures are printed in black and white. See online for color.)

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Fig. 5

The effects of conventional and cell printing seeding methods on cell proliferation within the microfluidic chips

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Fig. 6

(a) A schematic of the microchannels on the microfluidic chips. (b) An image of the left side of the microchannels on the microfluidic chip showing the cells (labeled with the arrows) within the channel and channel's uniformity. (c) An image of the center of the microchannels on the microfluidic chip showing the cells (labeled with the arrows) within the channel and channel's uniformity. (d) An image of the right side of the microchannels on the microfluidic chip showing the cells (labeled with the arrows) within the channel and channel's uniformity.

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