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Research Papers

A Mechanistic Study on the Inhibition of Zinc Behavior During Laser Welding of Galvanized Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: zy@hnu.edu.cn

Qingfu Li

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: lqf_hi@126.com

Lei Xu

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: shiguang2001@163.com

Linyong Duan

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: dly668@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 9, 2014; final manuscript received August 1, 2014; published online November 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Robert Landers.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(1), 011011 (Feb 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1014; doi: 10.1115/1.4028305 History: Received January 09, 2014; Revised August 01, 2014; Online November 26, 2014

The characteristics of zinc behavior that the zinc layer is vaporized and ionized during laser welding of galvanized steel are closely related to the stability of the molten pool, and the weld keyhole formation, easily leading to weld defects such as pores, splashes, cave, and incomplete fusion. In this paper, an experimental platform was built based on a multichannel spectrum signal acquisition to study spectral characteristics of zinc, plasma temperature, electron density, and bremsstrahlung absorption in laser welding of galvanized steel with the copper addition. The results show that, due to the formation of a copper–zinc solid solution during the laser welding of galvanized steel, the zinc content in the welding joints increased significantly. Meanwhile, by adding an appropriate amount of copper powder, the temperature and oscillation amplitude of the plasma plume during the laser welding of galvanized steel decreased significantly. Further, the inverse bremsstrahlung radiation absorption coefficient decreased, and there was less attenuation of the laser energy when passed through the plasma plume outside the keyhole. Therefore, the method implemented here improved the utilization of laser energy during welding.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the multichannel plasma spectrum signal acquisition system

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Fig. 2

Average strength of the zinc spectral line with the addition of copper at weight percentages of 0% and 2.33%

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Fig. 3

The plasma temperature with various amounts of copper powder added: (a) 0%, (b) 1.6%, (c) 2.33%, (d) 3.35%, (e) 4.75%, and (f) 6.86%

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Fig. 10

The zinc distribution along the weld depth direction with different amounts of copper powder added: (a) 0%, (b) 1.6%, (c) 2.33%, and (d) 6.86%

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Fig. 9

The line scan position along the longitudinal welding section

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Fig. 8

The change of the plasma inverse bremsstrahlung radiation absorption coefficient with the amount of copper powder added

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Fig. 7

The relationship between the plasma temperature and the inverse bremsstrahlung radiation absorption coefficient during CO2 laser welding

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Fig. 6

The plasma electron density curve with various amounts of copper powder

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Fig. 5

The Lorentz fitting results with different amounts of copper powder added: (a) 0%, (b) 1.60%, (c) 2.33%, (d) 3.35%, (e) 4.75%, and (f) 6.86%

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Fig. 4

The average temperature curve of the plasma with various amounts of copper powder added

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