Research Papers

An Enhanced Microstructure-Level Finite Element Machining Model for Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Lingyun Jiang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: ljiang10ui@gmail.com

Chandra Nath

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: nathc2@asme.org

Johnson Samuel

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Aerospace
and Nuclear Engineering,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Troy, NY 12180
e-mail: samuej2@rpi.edu

Shiv G. Kapoor

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: sgkapoor@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 23, 2014; final manuscript received July 30, 2014; published online December 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 021009 (Apr 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1292; doi: 10.1115/1.4028200 History: Received May 23, 2014; Revised July 30, 2014; Online December 12, 2014

During the machining of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites, the interface plays a critical role in the load transfer between polymer and CNT. Therefore, the interface for these composites has to be explicitly considered in the microstructure-level finite element (FE) machining model, so as to better understand their machinability and the interfacial failure mechanisms. In this study, a microstructure-level FE machining model for CNT-polymer composites has been developed by considering the interface as the third phase, in addition to the polymer and the CNT phases. For the interface, two interfacial properties, viz., interfacial strength and fracture energy have been included. To account for variable temperature and strain rate over the deformation zone during machining, temperature and strain rate-dependent mechanical properties for the interface and the polymer material have also been included in the model. It is found that the FE machining model predicts cutting force within 6% of the experimental values at different machining conditions and CNT loadings. The cutting force data reveals that the model can accurately capture the CNT pull-out/protrusion, and the subsequent surface damage. Simulated surface damage characteristics are supported by the surface topographies and roughness values obtained from the machining experiments. The study suggests that the model can be utilized to design the new generation of CNT-polymer composites with specific interfacial properties that minimize the surface/subsurface damage and improve the surface finish.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lu, J. P., 1997, “Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoropes,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 79(7), pp. 1297–1300. [CrossRef]
Ghasemi-Nejhad, M. N., and Askari, D., 2005, “Mechanical Properties Modeling of Carbon Single-Walled Nanotubes: A Finite Element Method,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci., 2(2), pp. 298–318. [CrossRef]
Stewart, R., 2004, “Nanocomposites: Microscopic Reinforcement Boost Polymer Performance,” Plast. Eng., 60, pp. 22–30.
Zhao, B., Wang, J., Li, Z., Liu, P., Chen, D., and Zhang, Y., 2008, “Mechanical Strength Improvement of Polypropylene Threads Modified by PVA/CNT Composite Coatings,” Mater. Lett., 62(28), pp. 4380–4382. [CrossRef]
Endo, M., Hayashi, T., Kim, Y. A. K., and Muramatsu, H., 2006, “Development and Application of Carbon Nanotubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, pp. 4883–4892. [CrossRef]
Eklund, P., Ajayan, P., Blackmon, R., Hart, A. J., Kong, J., Pradhan, B., Rao, A., and Rinzler, A., 2007, “International Assessment of Research and Development on Carbon Nanotubes Manufacturing and Application,” World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) Panel Report.
Yakobson, B. I., and Avouris, P., 2001, “Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes,” Carbon Nanotubes, M. S.Dresselhaus and P.Avouris, eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 287–327.
Dikshit, A., Samuel, J., DeVor, R. E., and Kapoor, S. G., 2008, “A Microstructure-Level Material Model for Simulating the Machining of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031110. [CrossRef]
Dikshit, A., Samuel, J., DeVor, R. E., and Kapoor, S. G., 2008, “Microstructure-Level Machining Simulation of Carbon Nanotube–Reinforced Polymer Composites—Part I: Model Development and Validation,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031114. [CrossRef]
Dikshit, A., Samuel, J., DeVor, R. E., and Kapoor, S. G., 2008, “Microstructure-Level Machining Simulation of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites—Part II: Model Interpretation and Application,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031115. [CrossRef]
Ortiz, M., and Pandolfi, A., 1999, “Finite–Deformation Irreversible Cohesive Elements for Three–Dimensional Crack-Propagation Analysis,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 44(9), pp. 1267–1282. [CrossRef]
Camanho, P. P., Davila, C. G., and De Moura, M. F., 2003, “Numerical Simulation of Mixed-Mode Progressive Delamination in Composite Materials,” J. Compos. Mater., 37, pp. 1415–1438. [CrossRef]
Oliver, W. C., and Pharr, G. M., 1992, “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7(6), pp. 1564–1583. [CrossRef]
Jiang, L., Nath, C., Samuel, J., and Kapoor, S. G., 2014, “Estimating the Cohesive Zone Model Parameters of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Interface for Machining Simulations,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Liu, K., VanLandingham, M. R., and Ovaert, T. C., 2009, “Mechanical Characterization of Soft Viscoelastic Gels Via Indentation and Optimization-Based Inverse Finite Element Analysis,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2(4), pp. 355–363. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hou, Y., Tang, J., Zhang, H., Qian, C., Feng, Y., and Liu, J., 2009, “Functionalized Few Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymeric Composites,” ACS Nano, 3(5), pp. 1057–1062. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Paiva, M. C., Zhou, B., Fernando, K. A. S., Lin, Y., Kennedy, J. M., and Sun, Y. P., 2004, “Mechanical and Morphological Characterization of Polymer-Carbon Nanocomposites From Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes,” Carbon, 42(14), pp. 2849–2854. [CrossRef]
Fleck, N. A., Stronge, W. J., and Liu, J. H., 1990, “High Strain-Rate Shear Response of Polycarbonate and Polymethyl Methacrylate,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 429(1877), pp. 459–479. [CrossRef]
Calzada, K. A., Kapoor, S. G., DeVor, R. E., Samuel, J., and Srivastava, A. K., 2012, “Modeling and Interpretation of Fiber Orientation-Based Failure Mechanisms in Machining of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites,” J. Manuf. Process., 14(2), pp. 141–149. [CrossRef]
Detassis, M., Pegoretti, A., and Migliaresi, C., 1995, “Effect of Temperature and Strain Rate on Interfacial Shear Stress Transfer in Carbon/Epoxy Model Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 53(1), pp. 39–46. [CrossRef]
Tabor, D., 1951, The Hardness of Metals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Zhang, P., Li, S. X., and Zhang, Z. F., 2011, “General Relationship Between Strength and Hardness,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 529(1), pp. 62–73. [CrossRef]
Lu, L., Schwaiger, R., Shan, Z. W., Dao, M., Lu, K., and Suresh, S., 2005, “Nano–Sized Twins Induce High Rate Sensitivity of Flow Stress in Pure Copper,” Acta Mater., 53(7), pp. 2169–2179. [CrossRef]
Lichinchi, M., and Lenardi, C., 1998, “Simulation of Berkovich Nanoindentation Experiments on Thin Films Using Finite Element Method,” Thin Solid Films, 312(1–2), pp. 240–248. [CrossRef]
Poisl, W. H., Oliver, W. C., and Fabes, B. D., 1995, “The Relationship Between Indentation and Uniaxial Creep in Amorphous Selenium,” J. Mater. Res., 10(8), pp. 2024–2032. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Ati, M. I., Hemeda, O. M., Mosaad, M. M., and Hemeda, D. M., 1994, “Thermal Properties of Pure and Doped (Polyvinyl-Alcohol) PVA,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 42(6), pp. 1113–1122. [CrossRef]
Bama, G. K., Devi, P. I., and Ramachandran, K., “Structural and Thermal Properties of PVA and Its Composite With CuCl,” Proceedings of American Institution of Physics, Vol. 1349, pp. 537–538.
Mi, Y., Zhang, X., Zhou, S., Cheng, J., Liu, F., Zhu, H., Cheng, J., Liu, F., Zhu, H., Dong, X., and Jiao, Z., 2007, “Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Bile Salt Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposites,” Composites, Part A, 38(9), pp. 2041–2046. [CrossRef]
Chen, W., Tao, X., Xue, P., and Cheng, X., 2005, “Enhanced Mechanical Properties and Morphological Characterizations of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)-Carbon Nanotube Composite Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 252, pp. 1404–1409. [CrossRef]
Salvetat-Delmotte, J. P., and Rubio, A., 2002, “Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes: A Fiber Digest for Beginners,” Carbon, 40(10), pp.1729–1734. [CrossRef]
Hone, J., 2004, “Carbon Nanotubes: Thermal Properties,” Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, M.Dekker, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 603–610.
Hepplestone, S. P., Ciavarella, A. M., Janke, C., and Srivastava, G. P., 2006, “Size and Temperature Dependence of the Specific Heat Capacity of Carbon Nanotubes,” Surf. Sci., 600(18), pp. 3633–3636. [CrossRef]
Jiang, L. Y., Huang, Y., Jiang, H., Ravichandran, G., Gao, H., Hwang, K. C., and Liu, B., 2006, “A Cohesive Law for Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Interfaces Based on the van der Waals Force,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54(11), pp. 2436–2452. [CrossRef]
Cooper, C. A., Cohen, S. R., Barber, A. H., and Wagner, H. D., 2002, “Detachment of Nanotube From Polymer Matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 81(20), pp. 3873–3875. [CrossRef]
Golestanina, H., and Shojaie, M., 2010, “Numerical Characterization of CNT-Based Polymer Composites Considering Interface Effects,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 50(2), pp. 731–736. [CrossRef]
Shokrieh, M. M., and Rafiee, R., 2010, “On the Tensile Behavior of an Embedded Carbon Nanotube in Polymer Matrix With Non-Bond Interphase Region,” Compos. Struct., 92(3), pp. 647–652. [CrossRef]
Li, Z., and Lambros, J., 2001, “Strain Rate Effects on the Thermomechanical Behavior of Polymers,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 38(20), pp. 3549–3562. [CrossRef]
Jésior, J. C., 1989, “Use of Low-Angle Diamond Knives Leads to Improved Ultrastructural Preservation of Ultrathin Sections,” Scanning Microsc., 3, pp. 147–152. [PubMed]
Samuel, J., DeVor, R. E., Kapoor, S. G., and Hsia, J., 2006, “Experimental Investigation of the Machinability of Polycarbonate Reinforced With Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(2), pp. 465–473. [CrossRef]
Tyan, T. M., and Yang, W. H., 1992, “Analysis of Orthogonal Metal Cutting Processes,” Int. J. Num. Methods Eng., 34(1), pp. 365–389. [CrossRef]
Suratwala, T., Wong, L., Miller, P., Feit, M. D., Menapace, J., Steele, R., Davis, P., and Walmer, D., 2006, “Sub-Surface Mechanical Damage Distributions During Grinding of Fused Silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 352(52–54), pp. 5601–5617. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Young’s modulus of PVA material at different temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Eyring rate plots showing dependence of plastic stress on temperature and strain rate in PVA (* data points)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SEM images of typical CNT–PVA composite samples at: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.% CNT loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Parameterization of individual CNTs [5]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Interspace between two adjacent CNTs for two typical cases at: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.% CNT loadings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Shape, orientation and distribution of CNTs in simulated microstructure at the loading of: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Representation of the CZM for the CNT–PVA interface, and (b) interface (i.e., cohesive zone) in the composite microstructure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Machining model for composites with interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental setup with: (a) the Leica ultramicrotome machine; (b) closeup view of the composite sample with reciprocating arm; (c) tool geometry and sample in the setup (side view)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental cutting force data for case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

FE machining simulation showing failure, surface/subsurface damage, material shear, and chip formation when considering: (a) perfect bonding; and (b) CZM for the conditions of 400 nm DOC and 35 deg rake at 4 wt.% CNT loading (case 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Simulation results of microstructure-level machining model with interface (CZM)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Typical 3D surface topographies of the machined CNT–PVA composite samples, and their corresponding roughness profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effect of interfacial strength on surface/subsurface damage for the 4 wt.% CNT–PVA composite at 800 nm DOC and 35 deg rake angle (case 4)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In