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Research Papers

Ultrasonic Attenuation Based Inspection Method for Scale-up Production of A206–Al2O3 Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

[+] Author and Article Information
Jianguo Wu

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
3255 Mechanical Engineering,
1513 University Avenue,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: wu45@wisc.edu

Shiyu Zhou

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
3270 Mechanical Engineering,
1513 University Avenue,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: szhou@engr.wisc.edu

Xiaochun Li

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Los Angeles,
48-121G Eng IV,
Los Angeles, CA 90095
e-mail: xcli@seas.ucla.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 29, 2014; final manuscript received July 23, 2014; published online November 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Robert Gao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(1), 011013 (Feb 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4028128 History: Received January 29, 2014; Revised July 23, 2014; Online November 26, 2014

A206–Al2O3 metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) is a promising high performance material with potential applications in various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and defense. Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed into molten Al using ultrasonic cavitation technique can enhance the nucleation of primary Al phase to reduce its grain size and modify the secondary intermetallic phases. To enable a scale-up production, an effective yet easy-to-implement quality inspection technique is needed to effectively evaluate the resultant microstructure of the MMNCs. At present the standard inspection technique is based on the microscopic images, which are costly and time-consuming to obtain. This paper investigates the relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation and the microstructures of pure A206 and Al2O3 reinforced MMNCs with/without ultrasonic dispersion. A hypothesis test based on an estimated attenuation variance was developed and it could accurately differentiate poor samples from good ones. This study provides useful guidelines to establish a new quality inspection technique for A206–Al2O3 nanocomposites using ultrasonic nondestructive testing method.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The experimental setup for ultrasonic processing

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Fig. 2

A representative casted sample

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Fig. 3

Illustration of the attenuation measurement using spectral ratio technique

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Fig. 4

Optical micrographs of as-cast pure A206 and A206–1 wt.%Al2O3 MMNCs with 15 min ultrasonic processing

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Fig. 5

Polarized light micrographs of as-cast pure A206 and A206–1 wt.%Al2O3 MMNCs with 15 min ultrasonic processing

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Fig. 6

Ultrasonic attenuation as function of frequency measured at multiple random locations using transducer with nominal central frequency 2.25 MHz: (a) sample 1, pure A206 without ultrasonic processing; (b) sample 2, pure A206 with ultrasonic processing; (c) sample 3, A206 + 1%Al2O3 + ultrasonic processing; (d) sample 4, A206 + 5%Al2O3, no ultrasonic processing; (e) sample 5, A206 + 5%Al2O3 + ultrasonic processing

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Fig. 7

Ultrasonic attenuation as function of frequency measured at multiple random locations using transducer with nominal central frequency 5 MHz: (a) sample 1, pure A206 without ultrasonic processing; (b) sample 2, pure A206 with ultrasonic processing; (c) sample 3, A206 + 1%Al2O3 + ultrasonic processing; (d) sample 4, A206 + 5%Al2O3, no ultrasonic processing; (e) sample 5, A206 + 5%Al2O3 + ultrasonic processing

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Fig. 8

Ultrasonic attenuation of the pure A206 with ultrasonic processing (sample 2) measured at 10 random locations with each location measuring 10 times using the transducer D785-RP

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Fig. 9

Optical micrographs of A206–5 wt.% Al2O3 nanocomposites with ultrasonic processing treatment

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Fig. 10

SEM image of A206–Al2O3 nanocomposites showing big Al2O3 clusters

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Fig. 11

The estimated variance of the acoustic attenuation measured using (a) transducer with nominal central frequency 2.25 MHz; (b) transducer with nominal central frequency 5 MHz

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Fig. 13

The average ultrasonic attenuation as a function of frequency measured using transducer with nominal central frequency 2.25 MHz; (b) transducer with nominal central frequency 5 MHz

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Fig. 12

Idealized attenuation coefficient identifying absorption and scattering dominant regions based on theoretical models

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