Research Papers

An Investigation of the Grinding-Hardening Induced by Traverse Cylindrical Grinding

[+] Author and Article Information
Thai Nguyen

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales, UNSW,
Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
e-mail: thai.h.nguyen@gmail.com

Mei Liu

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales, UNSW,
Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
e-mail: mei.liu@unsw.edu.au

Liangchi Zhang

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales, UNSW,
Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia
e-mail: liangchi.zhang@unsw.edu.au

Qiong Wu

Equipment Research Department,
Research Institute,
Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.,
Fujin Road,
Baoshan, Shanghai 201900, China
e-mail: wuqiong@baosteel.com

Dale Sun

Equipment Research Department,
Research Institute,
Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.,
Fujin Road,
Baoshan, Shanghai 201900, China
e-mail: sundl@baosteel.com

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 13, 2013; final manuscript received July 17, 2014; published online August 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(5), 051008 (Aug 06, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1342; doi: 10.1115/1.4028058 History: Received September 13, 2013; Revised July 17, 2014

This study investigates the formation of the layer hardened on a cylindrical workpiece by grinding-hardening using the traverse grinding method. A finite element heat transfer model, that took into account the helical trajectory of the of the grinding heat source movement, was developed. The hardened layer was found featuring a wavy profile as a result of the heat conduction from an adiabatic plane crossing the middle of the trajectory pitch. The accumulation of the grinding heat within a small pitch can lead to the welding of the molten material with the base material. Enlarging the pitch by reducing the workpiece speed will increase the time of heating, allowing the heat to penetrate deeper and to expand wider in the workpiece, thus thickening the hardened layer.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bhadeshia, H., 1997, “Martensite and Bainite in Steels: Transformation Mechanism & Mechanical Properties,” J. de Phys. IV, 7(C5), pp. 367–376 [CrossRef].
Nagasaka, Y., Brimacombe, J. K., Hawbolt, E. B., Samarasekera, I. V., Hernandez-Morales, B., and Chidiac, S. E., 1993, “Mathematical Model of Phase Transformations and Elastoplastic Stress in the Water Spray Quenching of Steel Bars,” Metall. Trans. A, 24A(4), pp. 795–808. [CrossRef]
Fisher, J. C., and Turnbull, D., 1953, “Influence of Stress on Martensite Nucleation,” Acta Metall., 1(3), pp. 310–314. [CrossRef]
Bhadeshia, H., 2002, Handbook of Residual Stresses and Deformation of Steel, G. E. Totten, M. A. H. Howes, and T. Inoue (eds.), ASM International, The Materials Information Society, Material Factors, Material Park, OH, pp. 3–10.
Zarudi, I., Nguyen, T., and Zhang, L. C., 2005, “Effect of Temperature and Stress on Plastic Deformation in Monocrystalline Silicon Induced by Scratching,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 86(1), p. 011922. [CrossRef]
Hsu, T. Y., and Chang, H., 1984, “On Calculation of Ms and Driving Force for Martensitic Transformation in Fe-C,” Acta Metall., 32(3), pp. 343–348. [CrossRef]
Patel, J. R., and Cohen, M., 1953, “Criterion for the Action of Applied Stress in the Martensitic Transformation,” Acta Metall., 1(5), pp. 531–538. [CrossRef]
Chang, L., and Bhadeshia, H., 1996, “Stress-Affected Transformation to Lower Bainite,” J. Mater. Sci., 31, pp. 2145–2148. [CrossRef]
Bhadeshia, H., 1995, Mathematical Modeling of Weld Phenomena 2, Maney Publishing, Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, Leeds, UK.
Brinksmeier, E., and Brockhoff, T., 1996, “Utilization of Grinding Heat as a New Heat Treatment Process,” CIRP Ann., 45(1), pp. 283–286. [CrossRef]
Zarudi, I., and Zhang, L. C., 2002, “Mechanical Property Improvement of Quenchable Steel by Grinding,” J. Mater. Sci., 37(18), pp. 3935–3943. [CrossRef]
Zarudi, I., and Zhang, L. C., 2002, “Modelling the Structure Changes in Quenchable Steel Subjected to Grinding,” J. Mater. Sci., 37(20), pp. 4333–4341. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T., Zarudi, I., and Zhang, L. C., 2007, “Grinding-Hardening With Liquid Nitrogen: Mechanisms and Technology,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(1), pp. 97–106. [CrossRef]
Brockhoff, T., and Brinksmeier, E., 1999, “Grind-Hardening: A Comprehensive View,” CIRP Ann., 48(1), pp. 255–260. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T., Zhang, L. C., Sun, D. L., and Wu, Q., 2014, “Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of the Hardened Layer Induced by Grinding-Hardening,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 18(2), pp. 277–298. [CrossRef]
Virkar, S. R., and Patten, J. A., 2013, “Combined Effects of Stress and Temperature During Ductile Mode Microlaser Assisted Machining Process,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Lei, S., Shin, Y. C., and Incropera, F. P., 2000, “Experimental Investigation of Thermo-Mechanical Characteristics in Laser-Assisted Machining of Silicon Nitride Ceramics,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123(4), pp. 639–646. [CrossRef]
Malkin, S., and Anderson, R. B., 1974, “Thermal Aspects of Grinding, Part 1: Energy Partition,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 96(4), pp. 1177–1183. [CrossRef]
Salonitis, K., Chondros, T., and Chryssolouris, G., 2008, “Grinding Wheel Effect in the Grind-Hardening Process,” Int. J Adv. Manuf. Technol., 38(1–2), pp. 45–48. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T., and Zhang, L. C., 2010, “Grinding-Hardening Using Dry Air and Liquid Nitrogen: Prediction and Verification of Temperature Fields and Hardened Layer Thickness,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 50(10), pp. 901–910. [CrossRef]
Foeckerer, T., Zaeh, M. F., and Zhang, O. B., 2013, “A Three-Dimensional Analytical Model to Predict the Thermo-Metallurgical Effects Within the Surface Layer During Grinding and Grind-Hardening,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 56(1–2), pp. 223–237. [CrossRef]
Tomlinson, W., Blunt, L., and Spraggett, S., 1989, “White Layer on Surface of Ground En24 Steel: 1 Microstructure, Composition, Internal Stress, and Corrosion Properties,” Surf. Eng., 5(3), pp. 229–234. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T., and Zhang, L. C., 2011, “Realisation of Grinding-Hardening in Workpieces of Curved Surfaces-Part 1: Plunge Cylindrical Grinding,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(4), pp. 309–319. [CrossRef]
Hyatt, G. A., Mori, M., Foeckerer, T., Zaeh, M. F., Niemeyer, N., and Duscha, M., 2013, “Integration of Heat Treatment Into the Process Chain of a Mill Turn Center by Enabling External Cylindrical Grind-Hardening,” Prod. Eng., 7(6), pp. 571–584. [CrossRef]
Salonitis, K., and Chryssolouris, G., 2007, “Cooling in Grind-Hardening Operations,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 33(3–4), pp. 285–297. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P., and Dewitt, D. P., 1990, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York.
Sklyuev, P. V., 1967, “Equations for Calculating the Transformation Temperatures of Austenite,” Metal Sci. Heat Treat., 9(3), pp. 236–237. [CrossRef]
Bhadeshia, H., 2001, Bainite in Steels—Transformations, Microstructure and Properties, The University Press, Cambridge, London.
Lavine, A. S., and Jen, T. C., 1991, “Thermal Aspects of Grinding: Heat Transfer to Workpiece, Wheel, and Fluid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(2), pp. 296–303. [CrossRef]
Woolman, J., and Mottram, R. A., 1966, The Mechanical and Physical Properties of the British Standard En Steels (B.S. 970-1955), Pergamon, Oxford, UK.
Ashby, M. F., and Easterling, K. E., 1984, “The Transformation Hardening of Steel Surfaces by Laser Beams—I. Hypo-Eutectoid Steels,” Acta Metall., 32(11), pp. 1939–1948 [CrossRef].
Fortunato, A., Ascari, A., Liverani, E., Orazi, L., and Cuccolini, G., 2013, “A Comprehensive Model for Laser Hardening of Carbon Steels,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061002. [CrossRef]
Ohmura, E., Inoue, K., and Haruta, K., 1989, “Computer Simulation on Structural Changes of Hypoeutectoid Steel in Laser Transformation Hardening Process,” JSME Int. J., Ser. 1: Solid Mech., Strength Mater., 32(1), pp. 45–53.
Koistinen, D. P., and Marburger, R. E., 1959, “A General Equation Prescribing the Extent of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Pure Iron-Carbon Alloys and Plain Carbon Steels,” Acta Metall., 7(1), pp. 59–60. [CrossRef]
Denis, S., Farias, D., and Simon, A., 1992, “Mathematical Model Coupling Phase Transformations and Temperature Evolutions in Steels,” ISIJ Int., 32(3), pp. 316–325. [CrossRef]
Verdi, C., and Visintin, A., 1987, “A Mathematical Model of the Austenite-Pearlite Transformation in Plain Carbon Steel Based on the Scheil's Additivity Rule,” Acta Metall., 35(11), pp. 2711–2717. [CrossRef]
Andrews, K., 1965, “Empirical Formulae for the Calculation of Some Transformation Temperatures,” J. Iron Steel Inst., 203, pp. 721–727.
Eda, H., Ohmura, E., Yamauchi, S., and Inasaki, I., 1993, “Computer Visual Simulation on Structural changes of Steel in Grinding Process and Experimental Verification,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Tech., 42(1), pp. 389–392 [CrossRef].
Yilbas, B. S., Akhtar, S., and Karatas, C., 2013, “Laser Treatment of Rene-41: Thermal and Microstructural Analysis,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(3), p. 034502. [CrossRef]
Shaw, M. C., 1996, Principles of Abrasive Processing, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Nguyen, T., and Zhang, L. C., 2009, “Performance of a New Segmented Grinding Wheel System,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(3–4), pp. 291–296. [CrossRef]
Pokhodnya, I. K., and Shvachko, V. I., 1996, “Cold Cracks in Welded Joints of Structural Steels,” Mater. Sci., 32(1), pp. 45–55. [CrossRef]
Cabelka, J., and Million, A., 1996, “The Weldability of High-Strength Steel,” Br. Weld J., 13, pp. 587–593.
Malkin, S., 1984, “Grinding of Metals: Theory and Application,” J. Appl. Metal Work., 3(2), pp. 95–109. [CrossRef]
Hahn, R., 1956, “The Relation Between Grinding Conditions and Thermal Damage in the Workpiece,” Trans. ASME, 78, pp. 807–812.
Guo, C., and Malkin, S., 1995, “Analysis of Energy Partition in Grinding,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 117(1), pp. 55–61 [CrossRef].
Guo, C., and Malkin, S., 1992, “Heat Transfer in Grinding,” J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., 1(1), pp. 16–27.
Kohli, S., Guo, C., and Malkin, S., 1995, “Energy Partition to the Workpiece for Grinding With Aluminium Oxide and CBN Abrasive Wheels,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 117(2), pp. 160–168 [CrossRef].
Guo, C., Wu, Y., Varghese, V., and Malkin, S., 1999, “Temperatures and Energy Partition for Grinding With Vitrified Cbn Wheels,” Ann. CIRP, 48(1), pp. 247–250. [CrossRef]
Malkin, S., and Guo, C., 2008, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining With Abrasives, Industrial Press, NewYork.
Jakob, M., 1949, Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Heat conduction in a workpiece during cylindrical traverse grinding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Segments on the circumferential surface of the cylinder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Finite element meshing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Contact width in traverse cylindrical grinding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the calculation Q·(n,t)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Thermal properties of workpiece material, EN26 [27]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature field in the workpiece (ωw = 5 rpm, vz = 15 mm/min, a = 400 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The temperature history at θ = 0.43 × 2π rad, z = 0.5 mm, and at different subsurface distances, Δ of a workpiece ground at (ωw = 20 rpm, vz = 20 mm/min and a = 300 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature field in the cross section A–A of the components ground at different operating parameters (ωw, vz, a)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Model prediction of the shape of the hardened layer in the workpieces subsurface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The shape of the hardened layer revealed by experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Chips produced from grinding-hardening at (ωw = 10 rpm, vz = 20 mm/min, a = 300 μm). (a) A melted chip fragment. (b) Curly chips.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In