Research Papers

Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process for 316L/15% Nickel Coated Titanium Carbide Metal Matrix Composite

[+] Author and Article Information
R. S. Amano

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

S. Marek

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: smarek@lucasmilhaupt.com

B. F. Schultz

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: bfs2@uwm.edu

P. K. Rohatgi

Wisconsin Distinguished Professor
Fellow ASME
Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: prohatgi@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 6, 2013; final manuscript received May 23, 2014; published online August 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(5), 051007 (Aug 06, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1339; doi: 10.1115/1.4027758 History: Received September 06, 2013; Revised May 23, 2014

This paper presents the investigation of the macrostructure, microstructure, and solidification structure of a 316L/15% nickel coated TiC metal matrix composite produced by the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process. The focus of this work was to (1) identify the solidification structure and to estimate growth/cooling rates at the solid/liquid interface, (2) identify and quantify discontinuities in the build structure, and (3) examine the effect of solidification and thermal history on the sample microstructure to further the understanding of the LENS process. A Numerical method was also developed to examine the influence of material type and LENS™ process parameters on the forming of the specific microstructures from thermodynamics and fluid dynamics point of view. Samples of 316L stainless steel were examined, microstructures of samples were used to estimate the corresponding cooling rate, and the cooling rate was compared with the results of numerical modeling. The computational results show reasonable agreement with experimentally determined cooling rate.

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Fig. 2

The LENS™ deposited 316L/15%TiC-Ni coated MMC specimens characterized in this study. The superimposed lines illustrate the longitudinal section removed for metallographic examination.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the LENS™ process

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Fig. 6

Porosity in the cube build structure near the substrate (bottom of each micrograph) etched with 10% Oxalic acid. Collections of large voids (micrograph (a) at 13×) near the center of the block are typically lined with TiC reinforcement particles (micrograph (b) at 50×).

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Fig. 7

Representative microstructures of the shell build etched with 10% Oxalic acid. Several distinct features were observed including (a) layered structure observed near the top of the build (50×), (b) columnar grains traversing layer boundaries (50×), (c) Epitaxial growth at the substrate (250×), and d) Cellular/cellular dendritic solidification microstructure (100×).

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the simulation of LENS™ developed for this study, illustrating the orientation to X-Y-Z planes

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Fig. 4

Surface roughness of the shell build structure specimen at a) 9 × magnification and b) 33.8 × magnification, and the block build structure specimen at c) 9 × magnification and d) 33.8 × magnification. Both large and small spherical particles are present at the surface and are responsible for the rough surface texture.

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Fig. 5

Un-etched cross section view of (a) shell build structure and (b) block build structure showing large and small particles attached to the surface, and surface irregularities (50×)

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Fig. 8

Cellular/cellular dendritic solidification structure observed in the block build (1030×) (a) near the top of the block, (b) at the center of the block, (c) below the center of the block, (d) near the substrate.

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Fig. 9

Remelt interface in the block build shows epitaxial growth between layers (520×)

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Fig. 10

(a) SEM morphology of TiC/Ni powder (Zheng, 2008) (b) Powder size distribution of TiC/Ni powder

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Fig. 11

Reinforcement particle distribution in 316L/TiC MMCs produced by LENS™ with a (a) shell and (b) block build structure (15×)

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Fig. 12

SEM images of the interfaces and distribution of TiC particles in LENS™ deposited 316L/15%TiC-Ni coated MMCs. Several features may be observed, including (a) TiC particles with varying nickel coating remaining at the surface of the particles are shown at higher magnification (1000×); (b) Area examined by SEM/EDS for chemical composition (200×); (c) SEM micrograph of site 1 and site 2 examined using EDS; (d) Intercellular regions in the “316 core” region. Results of EDS are shown in Table 4

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Fig. 13

Distribution of TiC in the layered structure of the LENS™ deposited 316L/15%TiC-Ni coated MMCs at higher magnification: (a) TiC particles entrapped by groups of dendrites (100×); (b) TiC particles entrapped by rafts/groups of dendrites are shown (520×)

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Fig. 14

Simulation results of cooling rate for different times: (a) t = 0.4 s, (b) t = 0.6 s



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