Research Papers

Effect of Aging on the Strength of Clinching Galvanized SAE1004 Steel-to-Aluminum AA6111 Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Gao

School of Physics and Engineering,
Key Lab of Materials Physics,
Zhengzhou University,
Zhengzhou 450052, China
e-mail: 641303569@qq.com

Zhong-Xia Liu

School of Physics and Engineering,
Key Lab of Materials Physics,
Zhengzhou University,
Zhengzhou 450052, China
e-mail: liuzhongxia@zzu.edu.cn

Pei-Chung Wang

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors Research and Development Center,
30500 Mound Road,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: pei-chung.wang@gm.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 29, 2013; final manuscript received April 29, 2014; published online May 21, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(4), 041016 (May 21, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1442; doi: 10.1115/1.4027596 History: Received December 29, 2013; Revised April 29, 2014

Mechanical clinching method has been shown to be a feasible alternative to self piercing riveting (SPR) for joining dissimilar materials, particularly for vehicle assemblies made in aluminum-to-steel. While a great deal of effort has been focused on studying the process development, there is an urgent need to understand the effects of aged aluminum on the strengths of the clinching steel-aluminum joints. To evaluate exactly the influence of mechanical properties of aged aluminum alloy on the strength of the clinching joint, 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4 aluminum was firstly solution heat-treated at 550 °C for 30 min followed by nature ageing treatment for various times and then clinching to 0.7 mm thick galvanized SAE1004 steel with SKB die. The section parameters and strength of the clinching joints were measured. The effect of mechanical properties of aged AA6111-T4 aluminum was analyzed using an analytical model. The results showed that aged aluminum affected little the clinchability but influenced the section parameters and strength of the clinching workpieces. The strength of the clinching SAE1004-to-AA6111-T4 joints increased with increasing the strength of AA6111-T4 aluminum. This can be primarily attributed to the fact that the strengthening AA6111-T4 aluminum resulted in larger residual press stress developed during the clinching.

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Fig. 1

The principle of clinching with a round tool [19]

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Fig. 2

Primary section parameters of the clinching joint

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Fig. 3

Failure modes of the mechanical clinching joint: (a) button pull-out, (b) neck cracking, and (c) mix failure

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Fig. 4

Configuration of specimen for tensile testing (dimension in mm)

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Fig. 5

Configuration of a lap-shear joint (dimension in mm)

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Fig. 6

Configuration of TOX@SKB dies

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Fig. 7

Effect of aging on the mechanical properties of AA6111-T4aluminum

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Fig. 8

Effect of aging time on the cross-section of clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to AA6111-T4 aluminum joints: (a) 0, (b) 5, (c) 10, (d) 15, and (e) 20 days

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Fig. 9

Effect of yield strength of aged AA6111-T4 aluminum on the section parameters of the clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4 joints

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Fig. 10

Effect of yield ratio of aged AA6111-T4 aluminum on the section parameters of the clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4 joints

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Fig. 11

Effect of aging time on the failure modes of the clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4 joints. (a) 0, (b) 5, (c) 10, (d) 15, and (e) 20 days

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Fig. 12

Relationship among yield strength and yield ratio of aged AA6111-T4 aluminum and strength of clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4joints

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Fig. 13

Relationship among undercut, bottom thickness and strength of clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 to 1.0 mm thick AA6111-T4 joints

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Fig. 14

Simplified model of a clinching joint under quasi-static lap-shear loading

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Fig. 15

Stresses acting on the lower sheet in the interlock region of a clinching joint

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Fig. 16

Comparison of calculated and measured strengths of clinching 0.7 mm thick SAE1004 and 1.00 mm thick AA6111-T4 joints




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