Research Papers

Hybrid CO2 Laser/Waterjet Machining of Polycrystalline Diamond Substrate: Material Separation Through Transformation Induced Controlled Fracture

[+] Author and Article Information
Dinesh Kalyanasundaram

Centre for Biomedical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011

Andrea Schmidt, Pal Molian

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011

Pranav Shrotriya

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: shrotriya@iastate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 23, 2011; final manuscript received February 28, 2014; published online May 21, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Allen Y. Yi.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(4), 041001 (May 21, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1222; doi: 10.1115/1.4027304 History: Received June 23, 2011; Revised February 28, 2014

This paper presents a combined experimental and computational investigation of a novel material separation mechanism in polycrystalline diamond (PCD) substrates. A hybrid CO2 laser/waterjet (CO2-LWJ) machining system that combines a CO2 laser for localized heating and an abrasive-free waterjet to rapidly quench the heated area is utilized for cutting experiments on PCD substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-Raman spectrometry characterization performed on the cut surfaces show that cut surfaces were divided into two zones—a thin transformed zone near the top where the PCD grains have transformed to graphite and diamond-like carbon; and a fracture zone with the same composition as-received substrate. The experimental results indicate that the PCD substrates were cut through a “score and snap” mechanism—laser heating leads to localized damage and phase transformation of surface layers; and subsequently, stress fields developed due to constrained expansion of transformed material and waterjet quenching act on the laser made “score” to propagate crack through the thickness. Analytical solutions for thermal diffusion and force equilibrium are used to determine the temperature and stress fields in the PCD substrate during CO2-LWJ cutting. Fracture mechanics analysis of crack propagation is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the “score and snap” mechanism for cutting of PCD substrates.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Lumley, R. M., 1969, “Controlled Separation of Brittle Materials Using Laser,” Am. Ceramic Soc. Bull., 48(9), p. 850.
Elperin, T., and Rudin, G., 2002, “Thermal Stresses in Functionally Graded Materials Caused by a Laser Thermal Shock,” Heat Mass Transfer, 38(7–8), pp. 625–630. [CrossRef]
Kalyanasundaram, D., Shehata, G., Neumann, C., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2008, “Design and Validation of a Hybrid Laser/Water-Jet Machining System for Brittle Materials,” J. Laser Appl., 20(2), pp. 127–134. [CrossRef]
Kalyanasundaram, D., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2009, “Obtaining a Relationship Between Process Parameters and Fracture Characteristics for Hybrid CO(2) Laser/Waterjet Machining of Ceramics,” ASME J. Eng. Mater., 131(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Kalyanasundaram, D., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2010, “Fracture Mechanics-Based Analysis for Hybrid Laser/Waterjet (LWJ) Machining of Yttria-Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Y-PSZ),” Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf., 50(1), pp. 97–105. [CrossRef]
Shehata, G., Molian, P. A., Bastawros, A., and Shrotriya, P., 2007, “Surface Finish and Flexural Strength of CO2 Laser-Cut Alumina by Evaporative and Thermal Stress Fracture Modes,” Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institute, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, pp. 391–400.
Lu, T. J., and Fleck, N. A., 1998, “The Thermal Shock Resistance of Solids,” Acta Mater., 46(13), pp. 4755–4768. [CrossRef]
Harrison, P. M., Henry, M., and Brownell, M., 2006, “Laser Processing of Polycrystalline Diamond, Tungsten Carbide, and a Related Composite Material,” J. Laser Appl., 18(2), pp. 117–126. [CrossRef]
Aronsson, S. B., and Waldenstrom, M. G., 1988, Diamond Tools for Rock Drilling and Machining, U. S. P. Office.
Katzman, H., and Libby, W. F., 1971, “Sintered Diamond Compacts With a Cobalt Binder,” Science, 172(3988), pp. 1132–1134. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. L., Li, Y. F., Yan, F. G., Wang, Y., Hu, J. S., and Wang, Y. J., 2006, “Study on Precision Grinding Technique of PCD Tool's Cutting Edge,” Key Engineering Materials, 304–305, pp. 186–190. [CrossRef]
Akaishi, M., and Yamaoka, S., 1996, “Physical and Chemical Properties of the Heat Resistant Diamond Compacts From Diamond-Magnesium Carbonate System,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 209(1–2), pp. 54–59. [CrossRef]
Irifune, T., Kurio, A., Sakamoto, S., Inoue, T., and Sumiya, H., 2003, “Materials—Ultrahard Polycrystalline Diamond From Graphite,” Nature, 421(6923), pp. 599–600. [CrossRef]
Harper, C. A., 2001, Handbook of Ceramics, Glasses and Diamonds, McGraw–Hill, New York.
Tso, P. L., and Liu, Y. G., 2002, “Study on PCD Machining,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf., 42(3), pp. 331–334. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. H., Guo, Y. F., and Liu, J. C., 1997, “Electric Discharge Milling of Polycrystalline Diamond,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, 211(8), pp. 643–647. [CrossRef]
Pei, J. Y., Guo, C. N., and Hu, D. J., 2004, “Electrical Discharge Grinding of Polycrystalline Diamond,” Materials Science Forum, 471–472, pp. 457–461. [CrossRef]
Zaitsev, A. M., 2001, Optical Properties of Diamond: A Data Handbook, Springer, New York.
Molian, R., Neumann, C., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2008, “Novel Laser/Water-Jet Hybrid Manufacturing Process for Cutting Ceramics,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Molian, R., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2008, “Improved Method of CO(2) Laser Cutting of Aluminum Nitride,” J. Electron. Packag., 130(2), p. 024501. [CrossRef]
Molian, R., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2008, “Thermal Stress Fracture Mode of CO2 Laser Cutting of Aluminum Nitride,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 39(7-8), pp. 725–733. [CrossRef]
Kalyana-Sundaram, D., Wille, J., Shrotriya, P., and Molian, P., 2008, “CO2 Laser/Waterjet Machining of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride,” Trans. of N. Ame. Mnfg. Res. Inst., 36, pp. 517–524.
Payne, B. P., Nishioka, N. S., Mikic, B. B., and Venugopalan, V., 1998, “Comparison of Pulsed CO2 Laser Ablation at 10.6 Microm and 9.5 Microm,” Lasers Surg. Med., 23(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Luk'yanov, A. Y., Ral'chenko, V. G., Khomich, A. V., Serdtsev, E. V., Volkov, P. V., Savel'ev, A. V., and Konov, V. I., 2008, “Measurement of Optical Absorption in Polycrystalline CVD Diamond Plates by the Phase Photothermal Method at a Wavelength of 10.6 μm,” Quantum Electron., 38(12), pp. 1171–1178. [CrossRef]
Bex, P. A., and Shafto, G. R., 1984, “The Influence of Temperature and Heating Time on PCD Performance,” Ind. Diamond Rev., 44(3), pp. 128–132.
Erasmus, R. M., Comins, J. D., Mofokeng, V., and Martin, Z., 2011, “Application of Raman Spectroscopy to Determine Stress in Polycrystalline Diamond Tools as a Function of Tool Geometry and Temperature,” Diamond Relat. Mater., 20(7), pp. 907–911. [CrossRef]
Jungnickel, G., Latham, C. D., Heggie, M. I., and Frauenheim, T., 1996, “On the Graphitization of Diamond Surfaces: The Importance of Twins,” Diamond Relat. Mater., 5(1), pp. 102–112. [CrossRef]
Phinney, F. S., 1954, “Graphitization of Diamond,” Science, 120(3114), pp. 393–394. [CrossRef]
Ralchenko, V., Nistor, L., Pleuler, E., Khomich, A., Vlasov, I., and Khmelnitskii, R., 2003, “Structure and Properties of High-Temperature Annealed CVD Diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater., 12(10), pp. 1964–1970. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. Z., Ho, K. M., Shirk, M. D., and Molian, P. A., 2000, “Laser-Induced Graphitization on a Diamond (111) Surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 85(19), pp. 4092–4095. [CrossRef]
Elperin, T., and Rudin, G., 2004, “Controlled Fracture of Nonmetallic Thin Wafers Using a Laser Thermal Shock Method,” J. Electron. Packag., 126(1), pp. 142–147. [CrossRef]
Boley, B. A., and Weiner, J. H., 1997, Theory of Thermal Stresses, Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, NY.
Zhao, L. G., Lu, T. J., and Fleck, N. A., 2000, “Crack Channelling and Spalling in a Plate Due to Thermal Shock Loading,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 48(5), pp. 867–897. [CrossRef]
Tada, H., Paris, P. C., and Irwin, G. R., 2000, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed., Paris Productions and Del Research Group, ASME Press. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F., 2001, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Moelle, C., Werner, M., Szucs, F., Wittorf, D., Sellschopp, M., von Borany, J., Fecht, H. J., and Johnston, C., 1998, “Specific Heat of Single-, Poly- and Nanocrystalline Diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater., 7(2–5), pp. 499–503. [CrossRef]
Miess, D., and Rai, G., 1996, “Fracture Toughness and Thermal Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 209(1–2), pp. 270–276. [CrossRef]
Dorgan, K. M., Arwade, S. R., and Jumars, P. A., 2008, “Worms as Wedges: Effects of Sediment Mechanics on Burrowing Behavior,” J. Marine Res., 66(2), pp. 219–254. [CrossRef]
Walter, R., Ostergaard, L., Olesen, J. F., and Stang, H., 2005, “Wedge Splitting Test for a Steel-Concrete Interface,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 72(17), pp. 2565–2583. [CrossRef]
Xiao, J., Schneider, H., Dönnecke, C., and König, G., 2004, “Wedge Splitting Test on Fracture Behaviour of Ultra High Strength Concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., 18(6), pp. 359–365. [CrossRef]
Forderreuther, A., Thurn, G., Zimmermann, A., and Aldinger, F., 2002, “R-Curve Effect, Influence of Electric Field and Process Zone in BaTiO3 Ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 22(12), pp. 2023–2031. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effect of velocity on modes of material separation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the CO2-LWJ system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SEM image of the cross section by Laser cutting at 1000 W and at a velocity of 42.32 mm/s (100 in./min) Below: Magnified images of region (a), (b), and (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Above: SEM image of the cross section by CO2-LWJ cutting at 1000 W and at a velocity of 42.32 mm/s (100 in./min) Below: Magnified images of region (a) and (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Raman spectroscopy of laser cutting of PCD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Crack orientations (a) plane strain cracking and (b) crack channeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Griffith energy for channeling crack (Gchan) versus a/w. Griffith energy calculated for CO2-LWJ cutting (presence of tensile thermal stresses).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Influence of laser irradiation induced transformation on crack propagation through thickness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature history at an arbitrary point on the surface at different time intervals (temp solution by error-function expansion is plotted by dotted lines and temp solution by trignometric function expansion is plotted by solid lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Temperature and (b) stress distributions across the thickness of PCD substrate at the instant corresponding to maximum surface tensile stress during CO2-LWJ machining



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In