Research Papers

Estimating the Cohesive Zone Model Parameters of Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Interface for Machining Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Lingyun Jiang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: ljiang10ui@gmail.com

Chandra Nath

Post Doctorate Research Associate
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: nathc2@asme.org

Johnson Samuel

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Nuclear and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Troy, NY 12180
e-mail: samuej2@rpi.edu

Shiv G. Kapoor

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: sgkapoor@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 4, 2012; final manuscript received May 10, 2013; published online March 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(3), 031004 (Mar 26, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1292; doi: 10.1115/1.4024941 History: Received October 04, 2012; Revised May 10, 2013

The failure mechanisms encountered during the machining of carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composites are primarily governed by the strength of the CNT–polymer interface. Therefore, the interface should be explicitly modeled in microstructure-level machining simulations for these composites. One way of effectively capturing the behavior of this interface is by the use of a cohesive zone model (CZM) that is characterized by two parameters, viz., interfacial strength and interfacial fracture energy. The objective of this study is to estimate these two CZM parameters of the interface using an inverse iterative finite element (FE) approach. A microstructure-level 3D FE model for nanoindentation simulation has been developed where the composite microstructure is modeled using three distinct phases, viz., the CNT, the polymer, and the interface. The unknown CZM parameters of the interface are then determined by minimizing the root mean square (RMS) error between the simulated and the experimental nanoindentation load–displacement curves for a 2 wt. % CNT–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite sample at room temperature and quasi-static strain state of up to 0.04 s−1, and then validated using the 1 wt. % and 4 wt. % CNT–PVA composites. The results indicate that for well-dispersed and aligned CNT–PVA composites, the CZM parameters of the interface are independent of the CNT loading in the weight fraction range of 1–4%.

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Fig. 1

The optimization-based inverse iterative finite element approach

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Fig. 2

SEM image of the cross-section of a typical 2 wt. % CNTs–PVA composite film (The highlighted region of 4 μm × 2 μm contains an average of 16 CNTs across all samples)

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Fig. 3

Experimental load–displacement curves of the pure PVA, and the 2 wt. % CNT–PVA composite

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of (a) the Berkovich indenter and (b) the equivalent cone indenter

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Fig. 5

Parameterization of CNTs

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Fig. 6

Schematic of distribution of the CNTs in the composite sample (cross-sectional area)

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Fig. 7

Simulated and exprimental load–displacement curves for PVA

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Fig. 8

Representation of the cohesive zone model for the interface between the CNT and the PVA in composite (a) top view and (b) cross-sectional view

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Fig. 10

(a) 3D microstructure model for nanoindentation simulation and (b) close-up view of a CNT-integrated cohesive zone with finite element mesh

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Fig. 9

Traction–separation curve for the interface

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Fig. 14

Simulated and exprimental load–displacement curves for the 4 wt. % CNT–PVA composite

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Fig. 13

Simulated and exprimental load–displacement curves for the 1 wt. % CNT–PVA composite

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Fig. 12

Simulated microstructure for the 2 wt. % CNT–PVA composite at the indentation depth of (a) 100 nm and (b) 200 nm. The shear stress along the CNT is captured in (c) and the plastic recovery of the microstructure after unloading the indenter is shown in (d).

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Fig. 11

Simulated and exprimental load–displacement curves for 2 wt. % CNT–PVA composite



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