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Research Papers

Dislocation Density-Based Grain Refinement Modeling of Orthogonal Cutting of Titanium

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongtao Ding

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Yung C. Shin

Fellow ASME
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: shin@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 1, 2011; final manuscript received March 12, 2014; published online May 21, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Burak Ozdoganlar.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(4), 041003 (May 21, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1320; doi: 10.1115/1.4027207 History: Received October 01, 2011; Revised March 12, 2014

Recently, orthogonal cutting has been exploited as a means for producing ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline microstructures for various metal materials, such as aluminum alloys, copper, stainless steel, titanium and nickel-based super alloys, etc. However, no predictive, analytical or numerical work has ever been presented to quantitatively predict the change of grain sizes during plane-strain orthogonal cutting. In this paper, a dislocation density-based material plasticity model is adapted for modeling the grain size refinement mechanism during orthogonal cutting by means of a finite element based numerical framework. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) finite element model embedded with the dislocation density subroutine is developed to model the severe plastic deformation and grain refinement during a steady-state cutting process. The orthogonal cutting tests of a commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) material are simulated in order to assess the validity of the numerical solution through comparison with experiments. The dislocation density-based material plasticity model is calibrated to reproduce the observed material constitutive mechanical behavior of CP Ti under various strains, strain rates, and temperatures in the cutting process. It is shown that the developed model captures the essential features of the material mechanical behavior and predicts a grain size of 100–160 nm in the chips of CP Ti at a cutting speed of 10 mm/s.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

TEM images of grain refinement of CP Ti produced by (a) and (b) orthogonal cutting [5], (c) and (d) multi-pass cold rolling [31], (e) ECAP plus cold rolling [32], (f) ECAP [33], (g) hydrostatic extrusion [34], and (h) SMAT [35]

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Fig. 2

Dislocation density-based material plasticity model predictions for CP Ti (experimental data from Ref. [52])

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Fig. 3

CEL model setup schematic

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Fig. 11

Predicted grain size histogram in the chip

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Fig. 10

Predictions of the grain size d (nm) distribution for orthogonal cutting of CP Ti

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Fig. 9

Temperature ( °C) predictions by the CEL model for orthogonal cutting of CP Ti

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Fig. 8

Effective strain predictions by the CEL model for orthogonal cutting of CP Ti with a rake angle of 20 deg

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Fig. 7

Strain-rate predictions by the CEL model for orthogonal cutting of CP Ti with a rake angle of 20 deg

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Fig. 6

Flow chart for CEL modeling using the dislocation density-based material plasticity model

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Fig. 5

Comparison of predicted temperature distributions for test 2

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Fig. 4

Comparison of predicted cutting force with experiments

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Fig. 12

Predicted total dislocation density (1/mm2) histograms

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Fig. 13

Schematic illustration of microstructural evolution during orthogonal cutting. (a) Predicted total dislocation density (1/mm2) distribution, (b) homogeneous, loosely distribution of dislocations in the bulk material, (c) elongated dislocation cell in the chip primary shear zone, with dense dislocations on the cell walls and blocked dislocations by subgrain boundaries, and (d) well developed submicron grains in the chip, by break up and reorientation of subgrains.

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