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Research Papers

Characterization of Surface Integrity Produced by Sequential Dry Hard Turning and Ball Burnishing Operations

[+] Author and Article Information
Wit Grzesik

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Opole University of Technology,
P.O. Box 321,
Opole 45-271, Poland
e-mail: w.grzesik@po.opole.pl

Krzysztof Żak

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Opole University of Technology,
P.O. Box 321,
Opole 45-271, Poland
e-mail: k.zak@po.opole.pl

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 21, 2013; final manuscript received February 19, 2014; published online April 11, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Eric R. Marsh.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(3), 031017 (Apr 11, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1230; doi: 10.1115/1.4026936 History: Received May 21, 2013; Revised February 19, 2014

This paper presents the state of surface integrity produced on hardened-high strength 41Cr4 steel after hard machining and finish ball burnishing. Surfaces machined by sequential machining processes were characterized using 2D and 3D surface roughness parameters. Moreover, detailed functionality of the generated surfaces was performed using a set of 3D functional roughness parameters. Among the characteristics of the surface layer, its microstructure, the distribution of microhardness and the residual stresses were determined. This investigation confirms that ball burnishing allows producing surfaces with lower surface roughness and better service properties than those generated by cubic boron nitride (CBN) finish hard turning operations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

CNC turning center used to perform sequential dry hard turning and ball burnishing operations; (a) turret with CBN tool and burnishing head, (b) construction of burnishing tool used, and (c) scheme of surface flattening by burnishing action [13]

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Fig. 2

Comparison of Ra values for hard turned and burnished surfaces; 1 T − ft = 0.075 mm/rev, 2 T − ft = 0.1 mm/rev, 3 T − ft = 0.125 mm/rev, 1B − fb = 0.05 mm/rev, 2B and 2BM − fb = 0.075 mm/rev, 3B − fb = 0.1 mm/rev

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Fig. 3

Comparison of Rz values for hard turned and burnished surfaces; 1 T − ft = 0.075 mm/rev, 2 T − ft = 0.1 mm/rev, 3 T − ft = 0.125 mm/rev, 1B − fb = 0.05 mm/rev, 2B and 2BM − fb = 0.075 mm/rev, 3B − fb = 0.1 mm/rev

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Fig. 4

Transformation of surface profiles produced in dry hard turning during ball burnishing with variable feeds: (a) T1 + B1, (b) T2 + B2, and (c) T3 + B3

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Fig. 5

Surface topographies produced in dry hard turning (a) and burnishing (b)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of surface topographies generated by single pass (a) and multi-pass (b) burnishing operations

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Fig. 7

Material ratio curves for dry hard turning (T) and burnishing (B) operations with variable feeds

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Fig. 8

Distribution of Rk, Rpk, and Rvk parameters for hard turned and burnished surfaces

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Fig. 9

Distribution of skewness Rsk for hard turning and burnishing operations

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Fig. 10

Microhardness distributions for hard turning (T) and sequential (T+B) operations (ft = 0.1 mm/rev, fb = 0.075 mm/rev); modified graph presented in Ref. [18]

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Fig. 11

Diffraction peak width broadening (a) and a d(221) lattice spacing versus sin2ψ plot (b) for a ball burnished 41Cr4 steel

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Fig. 12

Microstructures of the surface layer after: (a) dry hard machining (T2) and (b) ball burnishing (B2). SE micrographs at magnification 4000×.

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Fig. 13

Comparison of microstructures of the surface layer after sequential hard machining (T2 + B2) and multi-pass ball burnishing (B2M): (a) SE micrograph and (b) BSED micrograph. Magnification 5000×.

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Fig. 14

SE micrographs of the surface layer after ball burnishing at magnification 10,000×; (1)- retained white layer, (2)- deformed grains

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Fig. 15

SE micrograph of the sublayer with fractured white layer at magnification 10,000×. (1)- martensitic structure, (2)- retained austenite, (3)- highly deformed layer, and (4)- outer white layer.

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