Research Papers

Control of Lay on Cobalt Chromium Alloy Finished Surfaces Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing and Its Effect on Wettability

[+] Author and Article Information
Arthur A. Graziano

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Vasishta Ganguly, Tony Schmitz

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Engineering Science,
University of North Carolina at Charlotte,
Charlotte, NC 28223

Hitomi Yamaguchi

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 30, 2012; final manuscript received February 18, 2014; published online April 11, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Allen Y. Yi.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(3), 031016 (Apr 11, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1353; doi: 10.1115/1.4026935 History: Received November 30, 2012; Revised February 18, 2014

Freeform surfaces, including the femoral components of knee prosthetics, present a significant challenge in manufacturing. The finishing process is often performed manually, which leads to surface finish variations. In the case of knee prosthetics, this can be a factor leading to accelerated wear of the polyethylene tibial component. The wear resistance of polyethylene components might be influenced by not only the roughness but also the lay of femoral component surfaces. This study applies magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) for nanometer-scale finishing of cobalt chromium alloys, which are commonly used in knee prosthetics and other freeform components. Using flat disks as workpieces, this paper shows the dominant parameters for controlling the lay in MAF and demonstrates the feasibility of MAF to alter the lay while controlling the surface roughness. The manually finished disk surfaces (with roughness around 3 nm Sa), consisting of random cutting marks, were compared to MAF-produced surfaces (also with roughness around 3 nm Sa) with different lays. Tests using deionized water droplets show that the lay influences the wetting properties even if the surface roughness changes by no more than a nanometer. Surfaces with unidirectional cutting marks exhibit the least wettability, and increasing the cross-hatch angle in the MAF-produced surfaces increases the wettability. Surfaces consisting of short, intermittent cutting marks were the most wettable by deionized water.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kulawiec, A., Kordonski, W., and Gorodkin, S., 2012, “New Approaches to MRF in Optical Fabrication and Testing,” Imaging Applied Optics Technical Digest (online), Paper No. OM3D.3.
Tricard, M., Kordonski, W. I., and Shorey, A. B., 2006, “Magnetorheological Jet Finishing of Conformal, Freeform and Steep Concave Optics,” Ann. CIRP, 55(1), pp. 309–312. [CrossRef]
Kordonski, W. I., and Golini, D., 1999, “Fundamentals of Magnetorheological Fluid Utilization in High Precision Finishing,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 10, pp. 683–389. [CrossRef]
Harris, D., 2011, “History of Magnetorheological Finishing,” Proc. SPIE, pp. 1–22.
Walker, D., Beaucamp, A., Dunn, C., Freeman, R., Marek, A., McCavana, G., Morton, R., and Riley, D., 2004, First Results on Free-Form Polishing Using the Precessions Process, Proc. ASPE Winter Conference: Freeform Optics, Design, Fabrication, Metrology, Assembly.
Beaucamp, A., Matsumoto, A., and Namba, Y., 2010, “Ultra-Precision Fluid Jet and Bonnet Polishing for Next Generation Hard X-ray Telescope Application,” Proc. ASPE, pp. 3184–1.
Zeng, S., and Blunt, L., 2014, “Experimental Investigation and Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Process Parameters on Material Removal Rate for Bonnet Polishing of Cobalt Chrome Alloy,” Precis. Eng., 38, pp. 348–355. [CrossRef]
Cheung, C. F., Li, H. F., Lee, W. B., To, S., and Kong, L. B., 2007, “An Integrated Form Characterization Method for Measuring Ultra-Precision Freeform Surfaces,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47, pp. 81–91. [CrossRef]
Zeng, S., Blunt, L., and Jiang, X., 2012, “Material Removal Investigation in Bonnet Polishing of CoCr Alloy,” Proceedings of The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Computing and Engineering Annual Researcher's Conference, pp. 25–30.
Jain, V. K., and Sidpara, A., 2012, “Nanofinishing of Freeform Surfaces of Prosthetic Knee Joint Implant,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, J. Eng. Manuf., 226(11), pp. 1833–1846.
Fisher, J., Dowson, D., Hamdzah, H., and Lee, H. L., 1994, “The Effect of Sliding Velocity on the Friction and Wear of UHMWPE for Use in Total Artificial Joints,” Wear, 175(1-2), pp. 219–225. [CrossRef]
Ingham, E., and Fisher, J., 2005, “The Role of Macrophages in Osteolysis of Total Joint Replacement,” Biomaterials, 26(11), pp. 1271–1286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Borruto, A., Marrelli, L., and Palma, F., 2005, “The Difference of Material Wettability as Critical Factor in the Choice of a Tribological Prosthetic Coupling Without Debris Release,” Tribol. Lett., 20(1), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Borruto, A., Crivellone, G., and Marani, F., 1998, “Influence of Surface Wettability on Friction and Wear Tests,” Wear, 222, pp. 57–65. [CrossRef]
Wenzel, R. N., 1936, “Resistance of Solid Surfaces to Wetting by Water,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, pp. 988–994. [CrossRef]
Cassie, A. B. D., and Baxter, S., 1944, “Wettability of Porous Surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 40, pp. 546–551. [CrossRef]
Kubiak, K. J., Wilson, M. C. T., Mathia, T. G., CarvalPh., 2011, “Wettability Versus Roughness of Engineering Surfaces,” Wear, 271, pp. 523–528. [CrossRef]
Encinas, N., Pantoja, M., Abenojar, J., and Martinez, M. A., 2010, “Control of Wettability of Polymers by Surface Roughness Modification,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 24, pp. 1869–1883. [CrossRef]
Bhattacharya, S., Datta, A., Berg, J., and Gangopadhyay, S., 2005, “Studies on Surface Wettability of Poly(Dimethyl) Siloxane (PDMS) and Glass Under Oxygen-Plasma Treatment and Correlation With Bond Strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 14(3), pp. 590–597. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y., Duh, J., and Chiou, B., 2000, “The Effect of Substrate Surface Roughness on the Wettability of Sn-Bi Solders,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 11, pp. 279–283. [CrossRef]
Hallab, N., Bundy, K., O'Connor, K., Moses, R., and Jacobs, J., 2001, “Evaluation of Metallic and Polymeric Biomaterial Surface Energy and Surface Roughness Characteristics for Directed Cell Adhesion,” Tissue Eng., 7(1), pp. 55–71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Singh, R., Melkote, S., and Hashimoto, F., 2005, “Frictional Response of Precision Finished Surfaces in Pure Sliding,” Wear, 258, pp. 1500–1509. [CrossRef]
Malshe, A., Rajurkar, K., Samant, A., Hansen, H. N., Bapat, S., and Jiang, W., 2013, “Bioinspired Functional Surfaces for Advanced Applications,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., 62(2), pp. 607–628. [CrossRef]
Mezghani, S., Demirci, I., Zahouani, H., and El Mansori, M., 2012, “The Effect of Groove Texture Patterns on Piston-Ring Pack Friction,” Precis. Eng., 36, pp. 210–217. [CrossRef]
Patil, M. G., Chandra, K., and Misra, P. S., 2011, “Magnetic Abrasive Finishing—A Review,” Adv. Mater. Res., 418-420, pp. 1577–1581. [CrossRef]
Kim, J., and Noh, I., 2007, “Magnetic Polishing of Three Dimensional Die and Mold Surfaces,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 33(1), pp. 18–23. [CrossRef]
Ji, S. M., Xu, Y. M., Chen, G. D., and Jin, M. S., 2011, “Comparative Study of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing in Free-Form Surface Based on Different Polishing Head,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 675-677, pp. 593–596. [CrossRef]
Jain, V. K., Singh, D. K., and Raghuram, V., 2008, “Analysis of Performance of Pulsating Flexible Magnetic Abrasive Brush (PFMAB),” Mach. Sci. Technol., 12(1), pp. 53–76. [CrossRef]
Yamaguchi, H., and Shinmura, T., 1999, “Study of the Surface Modification Resulting From an Internal Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process,” Wear, 225-229, pp. 246–255. [CrossRef]
Sato, T., Yamaguchi, H., Shinmura, T., and Okazaki, T., 2007, “Study of Internal Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing for Copper Tubes With MRF (Magneto-rheological Fluid)-Based Slurry,” Key Eng. Mater., 329, pp. 249–254. [CrossRef]
Shinmura, T., Takazawa, K., Hatano, E., and Matsunaga, M., 1990, “Study on Magnetic Abrasive Finishing,” Ann. CIRP, 39(1), pp. 325–328. [CrossRef]
Graziano, A., Ganguly, V., Bullard, J., Yamaguchi, H., and Schmitz, T., 2012, “Characteristics of Cobalt Chromium Alloy Surfaces Finished Using Magnetic Abrasive Finishing,” Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, pp. 1–8.
Kubiak, K. J., Wilson, M. C. T., Mathia, T. G., and Carval, Ph., 2009, “Wettability versus Roughness of Engineering Surfaces,” Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, pp. 1–5.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Workpiece geometry, roughness measurement areas, and optical image of as-received surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Photograph of experimental setup and pole-tip geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

MAF processing principle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of cutting marks for finishing conditions 1, 2, and 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relationship between surface roughness, skewness, and finishing conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Images of MAF-finished surfaces captured by an optical profilometer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Goniometer setup and contact angle θ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Contact angle as a function of finishing conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Changes in contact angle with cross-hatch angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Surface roughness profiles in x- and y-directions



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In