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Research Papers

Multitool and Multi-Axis Computer Numerically Controlled Accumulation for Fabricating Conformal Features on Curved Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Yayue Pan

Epstein Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, CA 90089

Chi Zhou

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
Amherst, NY 14260

Yong Chen

Epstein Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: yongchen@usc.edu

Jouni Partanen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Aalto University,
Espoo, Aalto FI-00076, Finland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 29, 2013; final manuscript received February 17, 2014; published online March 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(3), 031007 (Mar 26, 2014) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1120; doi: 10.1115/1.4026898 History: Received March 29, 2013; Revised February 17, 2014

In engineering systems, features such as textures or patterns on curved surfaces are common. In addition, such features, in many cases, are required to have shapes that are conformal to the underlying surfaces. To address the fabrication challenge in building such conformal features on curved surfaces, a newly developed additive manufacturing (AM) process named computer numerically controlled (CNC) accumulation is investigated by integrating multiple tools and multiple axis motions. Based on a fiber optical cable and a light source, a CNC accumulation tool can have multi-axis motion, which is beneficial in building conformal features on curved surfaces. To address high resolution requirement, the use of multiple accumulation tools with different curing sizes, powers, and shapes is explored. The tool path planning methods for given cylindrical and spherical surfaces are discussed. Multiple test cases have been performed based on a developed prototype system. The experimental results illustrate the capability of the newly developed AM process and its potential use in fabricating conformal features on given curved surfaces.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 4

The hardware setup of a multitool and multi-axis CNC accumulation system

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Fig. 3

A schematic illustration of the multitool and multi-axis CNC accumulation process

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Fig. 2

A test example of building-around-inserts using the CNC accumulation process

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Fig. 1

A comparison of the fabrication processes for a curved surface and related features. (a) The uniform-layer-based AM process and (b) the CNC accumulation process based on adaptive tool paths.

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Fig. 5

An illustration of multitool stations of a CNC machine and a CNC accumulation system

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Fig. 6

The relation between curing depth and exposure time for the accumulation tools

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Fig. 8

Half-normal plots of the curing experiment for the line curing case

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Fig. 9

Half-normal plots of the curing experiment for the point curing case

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Fig. 7

The relation between curing width and motion speed for the accumulation tools

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Fig. 10

Comparison between different tools for a 2D dragon pattern. (a) Planned tool paths; (b) curing results using the large tool; (c) curing results using the small tool with a gap distance of 0.762 mm (B = −1); and (d) curing results using the small tool with a gap distance of 1.27 mm (B = +1).

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Fig. 11

Comparison between different tools for given characters. (a) Curing results of the characters using the large tool and (b) curing results of the characters using the small tool.

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Fig. 12

A schematic illustration of the 5-axis motion configuration for curved surfaces. (a) 5-axis motion configuration; (b) a surface with curvatures R1 and R2 in the X and Y axes; (c) feature fabrication on a flat surface with the X, Y, and Z translations; (d) feature fabrication on a cylindrical surface with the Y, Z, A, and C motions; (e) feature fabrication on a cylindrical surface with the X, Y, Z, and A motions; and (f) feature fabrication on a spherical surface with the Y, Z, A, and C motions.

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Fig. 13

An example of building features on a spherical surface

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Fig. 14

An illustration of the relationship between tool size and surface curvatures: (a) Tool size dt constrained by curvature rs and (b) tool size dt constrained by curvature rs and rotation angle θ

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Fig. 15

Test of an angled tool on repairing a feature on a vertical wall. (a) Tool head with coating; (b) physical model before repair; (c) planned tool path; and (d) physical model after repair.

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Fig. 17

A spiral curve pattern built by the small tool. (a) Planned tool paths and (b) built object.

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Fig. 18

The building of an inverse conical cup. (a) CAD model; (b) planned tool paths based on the large tool; (c) An illustration of the cured layers of the cup wall during the building process; and (d) the built physical model.

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Fig. 16

Adding textures on a vertical plane using tools with different mask patterns. (a) A curing tool and a test part; (b) tool head applied with a heart-shape mask; (c) planned tool paths and related mask patterns; and (d) a built object with desired textures added on a vertical surface.

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Fig. 19

Fluid channels on a cylindrical surface. (a) CAD model; (b) planned tool paths; (c) An illustration of cured layers using two accumulation tools; and (d) built physical object.

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Fig. 21

A tilted rod fabricated by the CNC accumulation and SLA Processes. (a) A CAD model of a tilted rod; (b) microscopic image of the rod fabricated by the CNC accumulation process; (c) microscopic image of the rod fabricated by the SLA process using a translucent resin (the same as the one used in b); and (d) microscopic image of a rod fabricated by the SLA process using an opaque resin.

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Fig. 22

Surface roughness measurements of built surfaces by the SLA and CNC accumulation processes. (a) Measurement results and (b) microscopic images of the measured up-facing surfaces.

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Fig. 20

Rods on a spherical surface. (a) Planned tool path and (b) built physical object.

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