Research Papers

WC/Co Tool Wear in Dry Turning of Commercially Pure Aluminium

[+] Author and Article Information
Xin Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
428 South Shaw Lane, Room 2555,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226
e-mail: wangxin9@msu.edu

Patrick Y. Kwon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
428 South Shaw Lane, Room 2555,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226
e-mail: pkwon@egr.msu.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 5, 2013; final manuscript received January 15, 2014; published online March 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(3), 031006 (Mar 26, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1085; doi: 10.1115/1.4026514 History: Received March 05, 2013; Revised January 15, 2014

Dry turning of commercially pure aluminum was performed with carbide inserts to generate tool wear. Thus, the wear on the carbides tools were generated by purely interacting with aluminum and without any abrasive, which would be the baseline wear for all aluminum alloys. The flank wear was the main mode, which increased with the cutting speed and decreased as the grain size of the carbides increases. Two types of tool wear pattern have been observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM): (1) the cavities left from the carbide grains which were dislodged by the adhered layer of the work material and (2) the abrasion on the flank surface caused by the dislodged carbide grains. The width of the scoring marks was correlated with the carbide grain size, which corroborates the abrasion by the dislodged carbide grains from the carbide tool. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed that the concentration of the cobalt binder was reduced on the worn area of the insert. The preferential wear of the cobalt binder is believed to facilitate the carbide grain pull-out. Therefore, the wear mechanism in turning pure aluminum is a combination of adhesion and abrasion.

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Fig. 1

The micro-structure of the work material (Al1100)

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Fig. 2

Flank wear versus cutting distance for both FGC and CGC inserts

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Fig. 3

Flank surface contours before and after machining

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Fig. 4

Flank surface of a FGC inserts after machining 32,940 m under

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Fig. 5

Cutting edge and flank surface of a new CGC insert

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Fig. 6

Cutting edge and flank surface of the worn CGC insert, at 61 m/min cutting speed

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Fig. 7

SEM pictures captured on CGC insert at the same location on the flank surface after machining at 61 m/min cutting speed

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Fig. 8

Cutting edge and flank surface of the worn coarse grain carbide insert, at 122 m/min cutting speed

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Fig. 9

Flank surface of the coarse grain carbide, 122 m/min

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Fig. 10

Flank surface of the new FGC insert

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Fig. 11

Flank surface of the worn FGC, at 61 m/min

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Fig. 12

Flank surface of the FGC insert, at 122 m/min

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Fig. 13

The Ccorner of the fine grain carbide, 122 m/min

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Fig. 14

The corner of the coarse grain carbide, 122 m/min

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Fig. 15

Typical shape of (a) BUE and (b) BUL

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Fig. 16

Rake surface of the carbide tool (a) BUL and (b) BUL with dead metal

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Fig. 17

(a) Rake surface of the new tool and (b) chipping on the surface after BUL has been physically detached

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Fig. 18

Clusters of tool material pulled out from the rake surface of the FGC insert, 122 m/min

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Fig. 19

EDX pictures of the concentration of cobalt (left) and tungsten (right) on the flank surface of coarse carbide tool

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Fig. 20

Two Ttypes of BUL: superficial and thin adhesion layers before and after etching with 1% NaOH for 10 minutes



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