Technical Brief

A Comparative Study of Carbide Tools in Drilling of CFRP and CFRP-Ti Stacks

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyung-Hee Park

Korea Institute of Industrial Technology,
Cheonan-si, Chungchungnam-do, South Korea 331-825

Aaron Beal

Verona, WI 53598

Dave (Dae-Wook) Kim

School of Engineering and Computer Science,
Washington State University,
Vancouver, WA 98686

Patrick Kwon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824

Jeff Lantrip

Boeing Co.,
Renton, WA 98055

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received March 20, 2012; final manuscript received June 21, 2013; published online December 13, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(1), 014501 (Dec 13, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1092; doi: 10.1115/1.4025008 History: Received March 20, 2012; Revised June 21, 2013

A comparative study was conducted to investigate the resulting tool wear and hole quality when drilling the stacks made of titanium (Ti) and carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) versus CFRP only plate using micrograin tungsten carbide (WC) twist drills. The experiments were designed to first drill CFRP alone to create 20 holes. Then, CFRP mechanically stacked with Ti was drilled for the next 20 holes with the same drill bit. This process was repeated until drill bit failure. The drilling experiment was performed at two distinct speeds. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) were used for tool wear analysis. Hole size, hole profile, surface roughness, and Ti burrs were analyzed using coordinate measuring system, surface profilometer and optical microscope. The experimental results indicate that the Ti drilling accelerated flank wear while CFRP drilling deteriorated the cutting edge. Entry delamination, hole diameter errors, and surface roughness of the CFRP plate became more pronounced during the drilling of CFRP-Ti stacks when compared with the results from the drilling of CFRP only. Damage to CFRP holes during CFRP-Ti stack drilling may be caused by Ti chips, Ti adhesion on the tool drill margin or the increased instability as the drill bits wear.

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Fig. 1

Drilling experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Overview of tool wear analysis procedures

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Fig. 3

Max thrust force and torque versus hole number

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Fig. 4

SEM images of drills at various speeds for drill margin

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Fig. 5

Tool wear profiles at various speeds. Ti adhesion of the tools after drilling stacks was removed before measuring tool profiles.

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Fig. 6

Flank and edge wear evolution

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Fig. 7

CFRP hole entry delamination versus hole number

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Fig. 8

Effect of tool wear and drilling speed on hole profiles

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Fig. 9

Effect of tool wear and speed on hole surface roughness parameters, Ra and Ry. (Error bars indicate the standard deviation.)

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Fig. 10

CFRP hole surface profiles at the high speed condition

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Fig. 11

SEM images of CFRP hole surfaces at the high speed condition



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