Research Papers

Spot Weld Layout Optimization of Tube Crash Performance With Manufacturing Constraints

[+] Author and Article Information
Qing Zhou

e-mail: zhouqing@tsinghua.edu.cn

Xueyuan Wu

e-mail: xy-wu04@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

Yong Xia

e-mail: xiayong@tsinghua.edu.cn

State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Department of Automotive Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Wayne Cai

Manufacturing Systems Research Laboratory,
General Motors Global R&D Center,
Warren, MI 48098
e-mail: wayne.cai@gm.com

Manuscript received November 22, 2012; final manuscript received September 24, 2013; published online December 30, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jyhwen Wang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(1), 011014 (Dec 30, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1343; doi: 10.1115/1.4025811 History: Received November 22, 2012; Revised September 24, 2013

Spot weld layout is critical to structural performance of vehicle and its design is also subject to manufacturing constraints. In this study, using thin-walled tube crash as an example, we establish the relation between structural performance and weld layout design with manufacturing constraints from resistance spot welding. First, a straight tube crash performance is evaluated as a function of flange width, weld distance to flange corner, and weld pitch, without consideration of manufacturing constraints. All these parameters exhibit certain influence on the deformation mode and the energy absorption capacity. Then, an S-shaped tube is studied in the design optimization of weld layout by adding manufacturing constraints. The proposed approach can determine optimized results by simultaneously considering crash performance and manufacturing constraints. It is also concluded that weld layout has more significant influence on crash performance in straight tubes than in S-shaped tubes.

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Fig. 1

Model of top-hat tube with superfolding elements [10]

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Fig. 2

Cross section and boundary conditions of the top-hat tube in the study

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Fig. 3

The stress-strain curves of the material (with four different strain rates)

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Fig. 4

Deformation at t = 35 ms for cases (I), (II), and (III) (the top figures are side view from −X  to  +X direction, the bottom figures are front view from +Y  to  −Y direction)

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Fig. 5

Deformation on flange for cases (I), (II) and (III) (flange panel: view from +Y  to −Y direction)

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Fig. 6

Energy absorption of the cases with the three flange widths

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Fig. 7

Schematics of four cases with different weld distances to flange corner

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Fig. 8

Deformation modes at t = 40 ms with different weld distances to flange corner (view from −X  to  +X direction)

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Fig. 9

Flange deformation arrested by the spot welds placed close to the flange corner

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Fig. 10

Local deformation on the flange for case (d) at t = 6.2 ms

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Fig. 11

Energy absorption for the cases with the four weld distances to the flange corner

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Fig. 12

Deformation results for group (A) (at t = 35 ms, view from −X  to  +X direction)

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Fig. 13

Energy absorption under different weld pitches for group (A)

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Fig. 14

Deformation results for group (B) (at t = 35 ms, view from −X  to  +X direction)

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Fig. 18

Several typical manufacturing constraints for spot welding

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Fig. 24

Influence of weld locations

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Fig. 23

Tubes for evaluating the influence of weld layouts

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Fig. 22

Curvature constraint

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Fig. 21

Design spaces for cases (1) and (2)

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Fig. 20

Stress–strain curves with different strain rates

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Fig. 19

S-shaped tube structure for optimization case studies



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