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Research Papers

The Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Drills in Thermally Assisted Drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

[+] Author and Article Information
A. T. Alpas

e-mail: aalpas@uwindsor.ca
Mechanical, Automotive and
Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor ON N9B 3P4, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 1, 2013; final manuscript received October 14, 2013; published online November 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yung Shin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(6), 061019 (Nov 26, 2013) (15 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4025739 History: Received April 01, 2013; Revised October 14, 2013

Drilling performances of diamond-like carbon coatings incorporating W (W-DLC) deposited on high-speed steel tools were evaluated when drilling Ti-6Al-4V at 25 °C and under thermally assisted machining (TAM) conditions at 400 °C. Dry drilling using W-DLC coated drills caused immediate tool failure as a result of titanium adhesion. The tool lives improved for TAM drilling using W-DLC when the Ti-6Al-4V was placed (with dry surface) in a cooling bath at −80 °C and resulted in low and uniform drilling torques as well as good surface finish. The low coefficient of friction (COF) of W-DLC against Ti-6Al-4V observed under TAM conditions was attributed to the formation of W oxide layers at the tool surface, as determined by Raman spectroscopy. Introducing a cooling bath was necessary in order to restrict the temperature rise in the workpiece that caused rapid tool wear above 500 °C during drilling operations and also to prevent adhesion with minimal built-up edge (BUE) formation during drilling. The TAM performance of W-DLC coated drills was shown to be similar to that of WC-Co drills used in conventional flooded drilling.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the cross-section of the W-DLC coating deposited on Si substrate and EDS mapping of (b) tungsten and chromium and (c) carbon and silicon

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Fig. 3

Comparisons of average running-in COF values of W-DLC, uncoated WC-Co, TiN and TiAlN coated M2 steel when tested against Ti-6Al-4 V in ambient conditions. The sliding speed and load were 0.12 cm/s and 5.0 N, respectively. The variation of the COF of W-DLC coating with the number of revolutions showing running-in and steady-state COF is shown in the inset.

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Fig. 4

The average running-in COF of W-DLC as a function of test temperatures. The sliding speed and load were 0.12 cm/s and 5.0 N, respectively.

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Fig. 5

Back scattered electron images of a section of the sliding track of the W-DLC tested at (a) 300 °C and (b) 500 °C. (c) Percentages of the surface areas of the sliding tracks of W-DLC coating covered by titanium at different test temperatures.

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Fig. 6

The two types of torque curves generated during drilling: (a) “Type I”, characterized by a continuous increase in torque. A corresponding SEM image of the cutting edge of the drills is shown in Fig. 6(b). The coating was intact at the cutting edge. (c) “Type II”, characterized by a drop in torque at the middle of the hole. A corresponding BSE image of the cutting edge of the drills is shown in Fig. 6(d). In BSE, the image is created according to atomic mass difference where heavy elements appear brighter; the area with darker contrast is the W-DLC coating and the areas with lighter contrast at the interface of cutting edge and adhered Ti is the HSS steel substrate.

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Fig. 7

Variations (with time) in the torque profiles generated during the drilling of each hole. Torque data representing the first ten holes for (a) uncoated WC-Co and the first hole for (b) W-DLC coated drill in dry conditions. Torque data representing the first ten holes for (c) uncoated WC-Co and (d) W-DLC coated drill in cooling bath conditions. (e) A comparison of average torques under dry and cooling bath conditions using uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills. The figures show reduced data for clarity. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of mean of torque values for each hole.

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Fig. 8

(a) Torque data representing the first ten holes for W-DLC coated drills in TAM with cooling bath conditions. (b) A comparison of average torque under TAM and TAM with cooling bath conditions for uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC and flooded conditions for uncoated WC-Co drills. The figures show reduced data for clarity. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of mean of torque values for each hole. (c) Torque data representing the first ten holes for uncoated WC-Co drills in TAM with cooling bath conditions.

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Fig. 9

Workpiece temperature increase with hole depth during drilling in Ti-6Al-4 V using uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills in (a) dry, (b) cooling bath, and (c) TAM with cooling bath and flooded drilling conditions. Schematic representation of the experimental setup for measuring the temperature during drilling is shown in the inset of Fig. 9(b).

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Fig. 10

Three-dimensional optical surface profilometry images of typical surfaces of drilled holes using uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills in (a) and (b) dry drilling; (c) and (d) cooling bath and (e) and (f) TAM with cooling bath drilling conditions

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Fig. 11

Comparisons of average surface roughness and depth of surface profile variations of drilled holes in (a) dry and cooling bath conditions using uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills and (b) TAM with cooling bath conditions using uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills and flooded conditions for uncoated WC-Co

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Fig. 12

SEM images of the cutting edge for uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC coated drills for (a) and (b) dry; (c) and (d) cooling bath; (e) and (f) TAM and (g) and (h) TAM with cooling bath conditions

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Fig. 13

Cross-sectional SEM images showing (a) the initial orientation of β phase particles. β particles were aligned perpendicular to the hole surface. (b) The displacement of the β particles after drilling and a schematic diagram showing the determination of deformation angle θ. (c) Variation of the shear strain with the distance (depth) from the hole surface for dry, TAM with cooling bath for W-DLC, and flooded drilling conditions.

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Fig. 14

The variations of COF as a function of number of revolutions for uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC at 400 °C. A section of the sliding track of both uncoated WC-Co and W-DLC is shown in the inset. The applied load and the sliding speed were 5.0 N and 0.12 cm/s.

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Fig. 15

Micro-Raman spectra of W-DLC coated drills before and after drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V in TAM with cooling bath conditions. The location of micro-Raman analyses on W-DLC coated drills is shown in the inset.

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