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Research Papers

Ultrasonic Welding Simulations for Multiple Layers of Lithium-Ion Battery Tabs

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongkyun Lee

e-mail: dongkyun@umich.edu

Elijah Kannatey-Asibu

e-mail: asibu@umich.edu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

Wayne Cai

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
Global R&D Center,
General Motors Company,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: wayne.cai@gm.com

Manuscript received March 23, 2013; final manuscript received October 8, 2013; published online November 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yung Shin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(6), 061011 (Nov 18, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1103; doi: 10.1115/1.4025668 History: Received March 23, 2013; Revised October 08, 2013

Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state bond created using ultrasonic energy. It has been used in the semiconductor industry for several decades, and more recently, in the automotive industry such as for lithium-ion battery welding. Although there existed numerical simulations for ultrasonic welding, the models were limited to two-layer and like materials stackups. In this study, finite element theories are introduced and simulation procedure is established for multiple sheets and dissimilar metal ultrasonic welding. The procedures require both abaqus/Standard and abaqus/Explicit to simulate the coupled mechanical-thermal phenomena over the entire weld duration with moderate computational cost. The procedure is verified and used to simulate selected specific cases involving multiple sheets and dissimilar materials, i.e., copper and aluminum. The simulation procedure demonstrates its capability to predict welding energy, distortion, and temperature distribution of the workpieces. Case studies of ultrasonic welding simulations for multiple layers of lithium-ion battery tabs are presented. The prediction leads to several innovative ultrasonic welding process designs for improved welding quality.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustrations of the hardening models in stress space for (a) the isotropic and (b) the kinematic hardening model, respectively, [25]

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Fig. 2

Temperature dependent thermal properties of aluminum and copper: (a) specific heat, and (b) thermal conductivity. In the figures, “C” and “A” represent copper and aluminum, respectively.

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Fig. 3

Illustrations for (a) Coulomb friction and (b) the gap resistance, respectively

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Fig. 4

Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and copper. In the figure, “C” and “A” represent copper and aluminum, respectively.

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Fig. 5

Temperature dependent mechanical properties of aluminum and copper: (a) elastic modulus, and (b) initial yield stress. In the figures, “C” and “A” represent copper and aluminum, respectively.

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Fig. 6

The ultrasonic welding process divided into four steps: (a) clamping, (b) welding, (c) holding, and (d) unloading steps

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Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of ultrasonic welding analysis using abaqus. In the figure, numbers in circles represent the order of executing simulation for each step with corresponding solvers, abaqus /Explicit or abaqus /Standard. “Abq/X” and “Abq/S” represent abaqus/Explicit and abaqus/Standard, respectively.

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Fig. 8

(a) Geometry configuration with horn, anvil and two foils. (b) Two foils have a center square area (Area “A”, 10 mm × 10 mm) for defining contact in abaqus. Each foil is meshed to have two elements in the thickness direction.

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Fig. 9

Boundary conditions for (a) clamping and (b) welding steps. In the figures, “P” and “U1” represent pressure and displacement, respectively. “P(t)” and “U1(t)” represent their respective changes over time. The top middle figure, detail “A”, is a zoomed-in view for the portion “A” marked in the figures.

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Fig. 10

abaqus/Explicit results on (a) displacement (U3) and (b) normal stress component (S33) in the thickness direction, (c) corresponding plastic equivalent strain and (d) contact pressure distribution for the clamping step

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Fig. 11

abaqus/Standard results for the clamping step. (a) Displacement (U3) and (b) normal stress component (S33) in thickness direction.

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the results obtained from abaqus/Explicit and abaqus/Standard on (a) displacement and (b) temperature histories of the bottom center point of foil #1 shown in Fig. 8

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Fig. 13

(a) Temperature histories for different fraction, η, over 200 ms of ultrasonic welding time, calculated with abaqus/Standard. (b) Temperatures at the end of abaqus/Explicit simulations for 4 ms of welding time and abaqus/Standard for 200 ms, with respect to η.

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Fig. 14

Temperature histories at the bottom center of foil #1 in Fig. 8 for different (a) clamping pressures, (b) amplitudes, (c) frequencies, and (d) friction coefficients, calculated using abaqus/Explicit

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Fig. 15

Histories of the bottom center of foil #1 in Fig. 8 with different clamping times of 2.5 and 5.0 ms for (a) displacement in thickness direction and (b) temperature.

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Fig. 16

Geometry configuration with a horn, anvil, three 0.2 mm thick foils and one 1.0 mm thick coupon

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Fig. 17

(a) Displacement histories in the horn motion direction and (b) temperature histories, at the top center of the foils for 200 cycles of welding step analysis with abaqus/Explicit

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Fig. 18

Displacement of the foils at select times for 80 cycles of welding step analysis with abaqus/Explicit in case of three foils and no coupon: (a) isometric and (b) top views. The displacement is scaled up by 20 in the horn motion direction.

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Fig. 19

Temperature contours at the end of a 500 ms ultrasonic welding step for (a) default configuration, (b) insulated anvil, (c) preheated coupon, and (d) thin coupon

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Fig. 20

Temperature histories at the end of a 500 ms ultrasonic welding step for (a) default configuration, (b) insulated anvil, (c) preheated coupon, and (d) thin coupon

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