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Research Papers

A Comprehensive Model for Laser Hardening of Carbon Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Alessandro Fortunato

e-mail: alessandro.fortunato@unibo.it

Alessandro Ascari

e-mail: a.ascari@unibo.it

Erica Liverani

e-mail: erica.liverani2@unibo.it
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Bologna,
Bologna, Italy 40136

Leonardo Orazi

e-mail: leonardo.orazi@unimore.it

Gabriele Cuccolini

e-mail: gabriele.cuccolini@unimore.it
Department of Sciences and
Methods for Engineering,
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia,
Reggio Emilia, Italy 42100

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 26, 2013; final manuscript received September 24, 2013; published online November 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yung Shin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(6), 061002 (Nov 05, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4025563 History: Received March 26, 2013; Revised September 24, 2013

This article illustrates the development of a complete and exhaustive mathematical model for the simulation of laser transformation hardening of hypo-eutectoid carbon steels. The authors propose an integrated approach aimed at taking into consideration all the phenomena involved in this manufacturing process, with particular attention to implementing easy mathematical models in order to optimize the trade-off between the accuracy of the predicted results and the computational times. The proposed models involve the calculation of the 3D thermal field occurring into the workpiece and predict the microstructural evolution of the target material exploiting an original approach based on the definition of thermodynamic thresholds, which can be considered as a physical constant of the material itself. Several parameters and phenomena are taken into consideration in order to accurately simulate the process: laser beam characteristics, fast austenization of the steel, and tempering effect due to mutually interacting beam trajectories. The accuracy of the model is presented by means of hardness comparisons between hardness predictions and measurements in single and double paths surface treating of AISI 1040.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Statistical distribution of Ix

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Fig. 2

Approximated linear distribution of Ix

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Fig. 3

Evaluation of the austenite fraction based on the definition of Ipa

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Fig. 4

Approximated uniform distribution of It correlated to the martensite hardness

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Fig. 5

Phases determination when T > A1, Ip → a > Ip → a,min and Im → a<Im → a,th

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Fig. 6

Phases determination when T > A1, Ip→a>Ip→a,min and Im→a>Im→a,th

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Fig. 7

Phases determination when T > A1, Ip → a > Ip → a,max and Im → a > Im → a,th

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Fig. 8

Phases determination when Ms < T < A1,It > It,min and austenite decomposition is neglected

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Fig. 9

Phases determination when Ms < T < A1,It > It,min and austenite decomposition is considered

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Fig. 10

Phases determination when Mf < T < Ms

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Fig. 11

Comparison between theoretical and calculated hardness in test b: Horizontal measurements

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Fig. 12

Comparison between theoretical and calculated hardness in test b: Vertical measurements

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Fig. 13

Comparison between theoretical and calculated hardness in test 2-d: Vertical measurements first laser path

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Fig. 14

Comparison between theoretical and calculated hardness in test 2-d: Vertical measurements second laser path

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Fig. 15

Comparison between theoretical and calculated hardness in test 2-d: Horizontal measurements

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