Research Papers

Beneficial Interface Geometry for Laser Joining of NiTi to Stainless Steel Wires

[+] Author and Article Information
Grant Brandal

e-mail: gbb2114@columbia.edu

Gen Satoh

e-mail: gs2358@columbia.edu

Y. Lawrence Yao

e-mail: yly1@columbia.edu
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027

Syed Naveed

Boston Scientific Corporation,
Marlborough, MA 01752
e-mail: syed.naveed@bsci.com

Manuscript received April 15, 2013; final manuscript received September 12, 2013; published online November 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yung Shin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(6), 061006 (Nov 05, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1165; doi: 10.1115/1.4025495 History: Received April 15, 2013; Revised September 12, 2013

Joining the dissimilar metal pair of NiTi to stainless steel is of great interest for implantable medical applications. Formation of brittle intermetallic phases requires that the joining processes used for this dissimilar pair limits the amount of over-melting and mixing along the interface. Thus, because of its ability to precisely control heat input, laser joining is a preferred method. This study explores a method of using a cup and cone interfacial geometry, with no filler material, to increase the tensile strength of the joint. Not only does the cup and cone geometry increase the surface area of the interface, but it also introduces a shear stress component, which is shown to be beneficial to tensile strength of the wire as well. The fracture strength for various cone apex angles and laser powers is determined. Compositional profiles of the interfaces are analyzed. A numerical model is used for explanation of the processing parameters.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Duerig, T., Pelton, A., and Stöckel, D., 1999, “An Overview of Nitinol Medical Applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 273–275, pp. 149–160. [CrossRef]
Avery, R. E., 1991, “Pay Attention to Dissimilar-Metal Welds: Guidelines for Welding Dissimilar Metals,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 4550, pp. 1168–1177.
Mubashar, A., Ashcroft, I. A., Critchlow, G. W., and Crocombe, A. D., 2011, “Strength Prediction of Adhesive Joints After Cyclic Moisture Conditioning Using a Cohesive Zone Model,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 78(16), pp. 2746–2760. [CrossRef]
Hand, H. M., Arah, C. O., McNamara, D. K., and Mecklenburg, M. F., 1991, “Effects of Environmental Exposure on Adhesively Bonded Joints,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 11(1), pp. 15–23. [CrossRef]
Schubert, E., Zerner, D. I., and Sepold, P. G., “Laser Beam Joining of Material Combinations for Automotive Applications,” Proc. SPIE, 3097, pp. 212–221. [CrossRef]
Yamamoto, N., Liao, J., Watanabe, S., and Nakata, K., 2009, “Effect of Intermetallic Compound Layer on Tensile Strength of Dissimilar Friction-Stir Weld of a High Strength Mg Alloy and Al Alloy,” Mater. Trans., 50(12), pp. 2833–2838. [CrossRef]
Yan, Y., Zhang, D., Qiu, C., and Zhang, W., 2010, “Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding Between 5052 Aluminum Alloy and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 20, pp. s619–s623. [CrossRef]
Mathieu, A., Shabadi, R., Deschamps, A., Suery, M., Matteï, S., Grevey, D., and Cicala, E., 2007, “Dissimilar Material Joining Using Laser (Aluminum to Steel Using Zinc-based Filler Wire),” Opt. Laser Technol., 39(3), pp. 652–661. [CrossRef]
Li, H., Sun, D., Gu, X., Dong, P., and Lv, Z., 2013, “Effects of the Thickness of Cu Filler Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Laser-welded TiNi Alloy and Dtainless Steel Joint,” Mater. Des., 50, pp. 342–350. [CrossRef]
Satoh, G., and Yao, Y. L., 2011, “Laser Autogenous Brazing—A New Method for Joining Dissimilar Metals,” Proceedings of the 30th International Congress on the Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Lake Buena Vista, FL, pp. 315–324.
Bao, J., and Yao, Y. L., 2001, “Analysis and Prediction of Edge Effects in Laser Bending,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123(1), pp. 53–61. [CrossRef]
Schwartz, M., 1979, Metals Joining Manual, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Brandal, G. B., Satoh, G., Yao, Y. L., and Naveed, S., 2013, “Effects of Interfacial Geometry on Laser Joining of Dissimilar NiTi to Stainless Steel Wires,” Proceedings of MSEC 2013, Madison, WI.
Otsuka, K., and Ren, X., 2005, “Physical Metallurgy of Ti–Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 50(5), pp. 511–678. [CrossRef]
Westbrook, J. H., 1967, “Historical Sketch,” Intermetallic Compounds, J. H.Westbrook, ed., Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Inc., New York, pp. 3–14.
Keyzer, J. D., 2008, Thermodynamic Modeling of the Fe-Ni-Ti System: A Multiple Sublattice Approach,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Vannod, J., 2011, “Laser Welding of Nickel-Titanium and Stainless Steel Wires: Processing, Metallurgy and Properties,” Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Sauthoff, G., 1995, Intermetallics, VCH Publishers, New York.
Martins, T. B., and Rechenberg, H. R., 2006, “Antiferromagnetic TiFe2 in Applied Fields: Experiment and Simulation,” Hyperfine Interact., 169, pp. 1273–1277. [CrossRef]
Ghosh, M., and Chatterjee, S., 2002, “Characterization of Transition Joints of Commercially Pure Titanium to 304 Stainless Steel,” Mater. Charact., 48(5), pp. 393–399. [CrossRef]
Eijk, C. V. D., Fostervoll, H., Sallom, Z. K., and Akselsen, O. M., 2003, “Plasma Welding of NiTi to NiTi, Stainless Steel and Hastelloy C276,” ASM Materials Solutions 2003 Conference, Pittsburgh, PA.
Borrisutthekul, R., Yachi, T., Miyashita, Y., and Mutoh, Y., 2007, “Suppression of Intermetallic Reaction Layer Formation by Controlling Heat Flow in Dissimilar Joining of Steel and Aluminum Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 467, pp. 108–113. [CrossRef]
Cacciamani, G., Keyzer, J.De, Ferro, R., Klotz, U. E., Lacaze, J., and Wollants, P., 2006, “Critical Evaluation of the Fe–Ni, Fe–Ti, and Fe–Ni–Ti Alloy Systems,” Intermetallics, 14(10–11), pp. 1312–1325. [CrossRef]
Ortega, A. M., Tyber, J., Frick, C. P., Gall, K., and Maier, H. J., 2005, “Cast NiTi Shape-Memory Alloys,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 7(6), pp. 492–507. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y., and McCormick, P. G., 1994, “Thermodynamic Analysis of the Martensitic Transformation in NiTi—Effect of Heat Treatment on Transformation Behaviour,” Acta Metall. Mater., 42(7), pp. 2401–2406. [CrossRef]
Satoh, G., Brandal, G. B., Naveed, S., and Yao, Y. L., 2013, “Laser Autogenous Brazing of Biocompatible, Dissimilar Metals in Tubular Geometries,” Proceedings of North American Manufacturing Research Institution/SME, Vol. 41, Madison, WI.
Vaidya, W. V., Horstmann, M., Ventzke, V., Petrovski, B., Koçak, M., Kocik, R., and Tempus, G., 2010, “Improving Interfacial Properties of a Laser Beam Welded Dissimilar Joint of Aluminium AA6056 and Titanium Ti6Al4V for Aeronautical Applications,” J. Mater. Sci., 45(22), pp. 6242–6254. [CrossRef]
Vaidya, W. V., Horstmann, M., Ventzke, V., Petrovski, B., Koçak, M., Kocik, R., and Tempus, G., 2009, “Structure-Property Investigations on A Laser Beam Welded Dissimilar Joint of Aluminium AA6056 and Titanium Ti6Al4V for Aeronautical Applications Part I: Local Gradients in Microstructure, Hardness and Strength,” Materialwiss. Werkstofftech., 40(8), pp. 623–633. [CrossRef]
Satoh, G., Yao, Y. L., and Qiu, C., 2013, “Strength and Microstructure of Laser Fusion-Welded Ti–SS Dissimilar Material Pair,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 66(1–4), pp. 469–479. [CrossRef]
Ogata, Y., Takatugu, M., Kunimasa, T., Uenishi, K., and Kobayashi, K. F., 2004, “Tensile Strength and Pseudo-Elasticity of YAG Laser Spot Melted Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Wires,” Mater. Trans., 45(4), pp. 1070–1076. [CrossRef]
Hertzberg, R. W., 1996, Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials, John wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
Awaji, H., and Kato, T., 1999, “Awaji—Criterion for Combined Mode I-II Brittle Fracture.Pdf,” Mater. Trans., 40(9), pp. 972–979.
Munz, D., and Yang, Y. Y., 1992, “Stress Singularities at the Interface in Bonded Dissimilar Materials Under Mechanical and Thermal Loading,” J. Appl. Math., 59, pp. 857–861.
Wah, T., 1976, “Plane Stress Analysis of a Scarf Joint,” Int. J. Solids Structures, 12, pp. 491–500. [CrossRef]
Ifflander, R., 2001, Solid-State Lasers for Materials Processing, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Xie, J., Kar, A., Rothenflue, J. A., and Latham, W. P., 1997, “Temperature-Dependent Absorptivity and Cutting Capability of CO2, Nd: YAG, and Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers,” J. Laser Appl., 9, pp. 77–85. [CrossRef]
Bel'skaya, E. A., 2005, “An Experimental Investigation of the Electrical Resistivity of Titanium in the Temperature Range From 77 to 1600 K,” High Temp., 43(4), pp. 546–553. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., 2002, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
Younglove, B. A., and Hanley, J. M., 1986, “The Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity Coefficients of Gaseous and Liquid Argon,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 15(4), pp. 1323–1337. [CrossRef]
“ASTM Standard E8, 2011, “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.”
Li, W., and Yao, Y. L., 2001, “Laser Forming With Constant Line Energy,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 17(3), pp. 196–203. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Ternary phase diagram for Fe–Ni–Ti at 1173 K [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram describing the geometry used. Point 1 is at the apex of the cone and point 2 is on the outside edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mode I stress intensity (KI) and Mode II stress intensity (KII) versus angle of interface, for a constant uniaxial load. The interfacial area is superimposed over-top, indicating that as the cones become sharper, the area increase results in a decrease of stress intensity.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Longitudinal sectioned time snapshot of thermal accumulation in 90 deg cones. Corresponding times are: (a) 1 s, (b) 4 s, and (c) 6.8 s (laser has shut off). Laser location indicated by white dotted line. Power: 15 W, angular velocity: 3000 deg/s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Uniformity along line segment 1–2 on the interface. As the angular velocity is increased, the thermal distribution becomes more even and the average temperature rises.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time history of points 1 and 2 along the interface from Fig. 2, compared to points at the top and bottom of the interface of wires with flat interfaces. Temperature difference between the 2 points on the rotated wires throughout the laser scan is minimal. Laser power is 15 W for the rotated wires, and 35 W for the flat interfaces.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Images of four different combinations of power and cone angle. The outer surface near the joint of the 90 deg wires experienced more deformation. Rotational velocity is held constant at 3000 deg/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Longitudinal section image of a 120 deg cone processed at a power of 15 W. The arrows indicate the paths of EDX line scans.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Longitudinal section image of a 120 deg cone processed at a power of 17 W. Excessive melting and deformation is present on the outer surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

EDX line scan across line II, indicating the mixing occurring in the joint. Sample irradiated at 13 W.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

EDX line scan across region II indicated in Fig. 8. Gradual decrease of concentration across the width of the interface is indicative of diffusion. Sample irradiated at 15 W.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

EDX compositional map, corresponding to the longitudinal sectioned image of Fig. 8, showing iron (red) left of the mixed region; nickel (green) and titanium (blue) are to the right of the mixed region. Laser power is 15 W. A mixing region is observed along the interface, the width of which decreases toward the center of the wire. This indicates that the lighter colored regions along the interface of the longitudinal sectioned images are indeed the mixed regions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Increase of load at fracture with increasing laser power input. Standard error for each level is indicated. Note that the 90 deg wires are stronger than the 120 deg wires at every power except for 17 W.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Stress at fracture over a range of power levels. The 90 deg wires are consistently stronger than the 120 deg wires, which is consistent with predictions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of fracture strength between two different angles. The percentage scale on the left is how much stronger the 90 deg joint is compared to the 120 deg joint, for given power and angular velocities. As the power is increased, the difference between the two geometries reduces. This graph does not indicate which parameters gave the best overall results, but simply indicates the difference between the two angles.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Maximum average strength at fracture achieved for each wire geometry. Standard error is indicated. The 180 deg samples are the nonrotated, flat interfaces. Both of the conical wires have much higher fracture strengths.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Fracture surface indicating brittle transgranular fracture. 90 deg interface, 17 W, 3000 deg/s. Fractured at 200 MPa, along a surface not corresponding to the material interface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Fracture surface of a sample that broke at 393 MPa, which was the highest strength achieved. The original cup and cone geometry was intact after fracture. Quasi-cleavage is apparent, indicating a better joint than Fig. 17.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In