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Research Papers

A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Effect of Weld Nozzle Geometry Changes on Shielding Gas Coverage During Gas Metal Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
S. W. Campbell

e-mail: stuart.campbell@strath.ac.uk

G. M. Ramsey

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
University of Strathclyde,
Glasgow, Scotland G1 1XJ,, UK

N. A. McPherson

BAE Systems Naval Ships,
Glasgow, Scotland G51 4XP,UK

Manuscript received November 5, 2012; final manuscript received May 13, 2013; published online September 16, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(5), 051016 (Sep 16, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1330; doi: 10.1115/1.4024817 History: Received November 05, 2012; Revised May 13, 2013

Three geometry changes to the inner bore of a welding nozzle and their effects on weld quality during gas metal arc welding (GMAW) were investigated through the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models and experimental trials. It was shown that an increased shielding gas exit velocity increased the gas column's stability, and therefore its resistance to side draughts. Double helix geometry within the nozzle reduced the gas column's stability by generating a fast moving wall of gas around a slow moving center. A pierced internal plate initially increased the gas velocity, however, the nozzle was unable to maintain the velocity and the change produced gas columns of similar stability to a standard nozzle. A pierced end plate produced the best results, increasing the shielding gases exit velocity sufficiently to marginally outperform the standard 16 mm welding nozzle.

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References

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Campbell, S. W., Galloway, A. M., and McPherson, N. A., 2011, “Techno-Economic Evaluation on the Effects of Alternating Shielding Gases for Advanced Joining Processes,” Proc. IMechE Part B: J. Eng. Manuf., 225, pp. 1863–1872. [CrossRef]
Ramsey, G. M., Galloway, A. M., Campbell, S. W., McPherson, N. A., and Scanlon, T. J.2012, “A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Effect of Side Draughts and Nozzle Diameter on Shielding Gas Coverage During Gas Metal Arc Welding,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(8), pp. 1694–1699. [CrossRef]
Campbell, S. W., Galloway, A. M., and McPherson, N. A., 2012, “Techno-Economic Evaluation of Reducing Shielding Gas Consumption in GMAW Whilst Maintaining Weld Quality,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 63, pp. 975–985. [CrossRef]
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Dreher, M., Füssel, U., Schnick, M., and Hertel, M., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of the Shielding Gas Flow With GMA Welding and Options of Validation by Diagnostics,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 39–49.
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Lin, M. L., and Eager, T. W., 1986, “Pressures Produced by Gas Tungsten Arcs,” Metall. Trans. B, 17B, pp. 601–607. [CrossRef]
Campbell, S. W., Galloway, A. M., and McPherson, N. A., “Arc Pressure and Weld Metal Fluid Flow Whilst Using Alternating Shielding Gases—Part 1: Arc Pressure Measurement,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining (in press). [CrossRef]
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Campbell, S. W., Galloway, A. M., and McPherson, N. A., “Arc Pressure and Weld Metal Fluid Flow Whilst Using Alternating Shielding Gases—Part 2: Arc Force Calculation,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining (in press). [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Conventional welding nozzle showing (a) double helix insert, (b) end plate and (c) internal plate, geometry changes for CFD simulation

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Fig. 2

Nozzle and arc geometry generated in Gambit (units in mm)

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Fig. 3

Conventional welding nozzle showing (a) end plate and (b) internal plate, geometry changes for experimental validation

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup

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Fig. 5

10 l/min shielding gas column (mass concentration of argon) when subjected to cross draughts of (a) 0 m/s (0 mph) (showing 26 mm diameter, 80% argon i.e., 100% shielding gas coverage), (b) 1.8 m/s (4 mph) and (c) 3.6 m/s (8 mph)

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Fig. 6

Macro of experimental validation weld

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Fig. 7

A velocity (m/s) vector plot of a 15 l/min shielding gas for a 16 mm nozzle

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Fig. 8

A velocity (m/s) vector plot of a 15 l/min shielding gas for a spiraled nozzle

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Fig. 9

A velocity (m/s) vector plot of a 15 l/min shielding gas for a spiraled nozzle from above (showing 16 mm nozzle exit)

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Fig. 10

A velocity (m/s) vector plot of a 15 l/min shielding gas for a nozzle with in inserted plate

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Fig. 11

A velocity (m/s) vector plot of a 15 l/min shielding gas for a nozzle with an end plate

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