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Research Papers

Analysis of Nonisothermal Deep Drawing of Aluminum Alloy Sheet With Induced Anisotropy and Rate Sensitivity at Elevated Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael J. Worswick

Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Avenue West,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada

Manuscript received September 10, 2012; final manuscript received July 22, 2013; published online November 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Brad L. Kinsey.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(1), 011006 (Nov 05, 2013) (16 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1271; doi: 10.1115/1.4025407 History: Received September 10, 2012; Revised July 22, 2013

In this paper, a finite element model is developed for 3000 series clad aluminum alloy brazing sheet to account for temperature and strain rate dependency, as well as plastic anisotropy. The current work considers a novel implementation of the Barlat YLD2000 yield surface in conjunction with the Bergstrom hardening model to accurately model aluminum alloy sheet during warm forming. The Barlat YLD2000 yield criterion is used to capture the anisotropy while the Bergstrom hardening rule predicts the temperature and strain rate dependency. The results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The measured stress–strain curves of the AA3003 aluminum alloy sheet at elevated temperatures and different strain rates are used to fit the Bergstrom parameters and measured R-values and directional yield stresses are used to fit the yield function parameters. Isothermal uniaxial tensile tests and nonisothermal deep drawing experiments are performed and the predicted response using the new constitutive model is compared with measured data. In simulations of tensile tests, the material behavior is predicted accurately by the numerical models. Also, the nonisothermal deep drawing simulations are able to predict the load–displacement response and strain distributions accurately.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Stress–strain curves using fit parameters versus experimental results for different temperatures and strain rates. (a) 25 °C, (b) 100 °C, (c) 200 °C, and (d) 250 °C

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Fig. 2

Yield surface at different temperatures for AA3003: (a) normalized by the RD yield stress for each temperature and (b) without normalization.

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Fig. 3

Geometry of tensile test sample (all dimensions are in mm)

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Fig. 4

Mesh model of tensile test showing the fine mesh

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Fig. 5

Effect of mesh size on numerical results for stress–strain curve

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Fig. 6

Comparison of numerical results with measured engineering stress–strain curves at (a) 0.07, (b) 0.007, and (c) 0.0007 s-1 strain rates

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Fig. 7

Effect of strain rate on predicted stress–strain response and rate sensitivity: (a) simulation and (b) experiments

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Fig. 8

Tooling cross section (a) and close up view of the tooling (b)

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Fig. 9

Mesh model of the quarter tooling (a) and quarter blank mesh (b)

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Fig. 10

(a) Contour plot of temperature distribution for a deep drawn 203.2 mm blank; (b) change in blank temperature versus normalized position on the cup wall from the center to the cup edge for a full, one half and one quarter drawn cup.

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Fig. 11

Comparison of predicted normalized thickness change versus normalized position (along radial direction) on the cup under isothermal conditions at room temperature and 250  °C and nonisothermal forming with punch at 15  °C and dies at 250  °C.

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Fig. 12

Major versus minor strain along x-axis (rolling direction) for experiments [31] and simulations. 228.6 mm (9 in.) blank and 17.8 kN clamping force

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Fig. 13

Major versus minor strain along y-axis (transverse direction) for experiments [31] and simulations. 228.6 mm (9 in.) blank and 17.8 kN clamping force

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Fig. 14

Contour plots of major strain for deep drawn 203 mm blank under isothermal conditions at room temperature (a) and nonisothermal conditions with dies at 250  °C (b), comparison between major strains for a row of elements initially located along an arc of radius 93 mm from the center of the blank (c).

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Fig. 15

Contour plot of minor strain for deep drawing of 203 mm blank under isothermal conditions at room temperature (a) and nonisothermal conditions with dies at 250  °C (b), comparison between minor strains for a row of elements initially located along an arc of radius 93 mm from the center of the blank (c).

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Fig. 16

(a) Wrinkled isothermal and (b) fully drawn nonisothermal parts under blank holder forces of 6.6 and 17.8 kN, respectively. The predicted effective plastic strain distributions are shown for both parts.

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Fig. 17

Punch force versus punch displacement for deep drawing 228.6 mm using Teflon sheet lubricant and 8 mm/s punch speed, comparing results with experiments for room temperature forming and nonisothermal warm forming with dies at 250  °C

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Fig. 18

Punch force versus punch displacement for deep drawing 228.6 mm blank using warm dies and cold punch and Dasco Cast lubricant at different punch speeds

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Fig. 19

Punch force versus punch displacement for nonisothermal, warm deep drawing 228.6 mm blank using Teflon sheet lubricant comparing result with experiment at two blank holder force level

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Fig. 20

Punch force versus punch displacement for nonisothermal warm deep drawing 228.6 mm at 8 mm/s punch speed comparing results with experiment for two different lubricants

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