Technical Briefs

Height Dependent Laser Metal Deposition Process Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick M. Sammons

e-mail: pmsd44@mst.edu

Douglas A. Bristow

e-mail: dbristow@mst.edu

Robert G. Landers

e-mail: landersr@mst.edu
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
Rolla, MO 65409

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 4, 2012; final manuscript received June 25, 2013; published online September 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yong Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(5), 054501 (Sep 11, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1197; doi: 10.1115/1.4025061 History: Received July 04, 2012; Revised June 25, 2013

Laser metal deposition (LMD) is used to construct functional parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. The heat transfer from the melt region to the solid region plays a critical role in the resulting material properties and part geometry. The heat transfer dynamics can change significantly as the number of layers increase, depending on the geometry of the sub layers. However, this effect is not taken into account in previous analytical models, which are only valid for a single layer. This paper develops a layer dependent model of the LMD process for the purpose of designing advanced layer-to-layer controllers. A lumped-parameter model of the melt pool is introduced and then extended to include elements that capture height dependent effects on the melt pool dimensions and temperature. The model dynamically relates the process inputs (laser power, material mass flow rate, and scan speed) to the melt pool dimensions and temperature. A finite element analysis (FEA) is then conducted to determine the effect of scan speed and part height on the solid region temperature gradient at the melt pool solidification boundary. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the model successfully predicts multilayer phenomenon for two deposits on two different substrates.

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Fig. 1

Schematic showing melt pool shape parameters, substrate, direction of travel, and coordinate frame

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Fig. 2

Schematic showing solid–melt phase change boundary with solid region and melt pool temperature gradients

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Fig. 3

Schematic of 1D conduction in melt pool with heat generation from laser and melt pool temperature profile

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Fig. 4

Schematic showing finite element analysis setup for solid region temperature gradient determination

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Fig. 5

Temperature contour plots for v = 7 mm/s; ξsub = 50; and H = 0.5, 5, and 10 mm when t = 1 s. Temperature is in Kelvin.

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Fig. 6

X-direction steady state temperature gradient as a function of part height at various scan speeds

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Fig. 7

Deposits on substrates with a large ξsub value (1) and a small ξsub value (2)

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Fig. 8

Cross-sections of digitized thin-walled deposit 1 using process parameters in Table 2

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Fig. 9

Cross-sections of digitized thin-walled deposit 2 using process parameters in Table 2

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Fig. 10

Solid region temperature gradients as a function of part height for v = 2.54 mm/s when ξsub = 50 and ξsub = 1

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Fig. 12

Width versus height averaged over each digitized track slice for deposition 2 and simulation data

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Fig. 11

Width versus height averaged over each digitized track slice for deposition 1 and simulation data



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