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Research Papers

Curing-Induced Distortion Mechanism in Adhesive Bonding of Aluminum AA6061-T6 and Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
XiaoBo Zhu

Ph.D. Candidate
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-Walled Structures,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

YongBing Li

Associate Professor
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-Walled Structures;
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yongbinglee@sjtu.edu.cn

GuanLong Chen

Professor
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-Walled Structures
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Pei-Chung Wang

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors Research and
Development Center,
Warren, MI 48090

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 23, 2013; final manuscript received June 25, 2013; published online September 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(5), 051007 (Sep 11, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4025013 History: Received January 23, 2013; Revised June 25, 2013

The bonding of dissimilar materials is of primary importance to the automotive industry as it enables designers the freedom to choose from a wide variety of low density materials such as aluminum and magnesium. However, when two dissimilar materials (e.g., aluminum-to-steel) are bonded by curing at elevated temperatures, residual stresses result upon cooling the layered material system to room temperature. Problems such as distortion and fracture of adhesive often emerge in bonding of these dissimilar materials for automotive applications. In this study, the transient distortion of riveted and rivet-bonded aluminum AA6061-T6-to-steels during the curing process was investigated using the photographic method. The influences of temperature, adhesive properties, adherend thickness, adherend strength, and the presence of constraints on the transient distortion and adhesive fracture were evaluated. The peak curing temperature was found to play the most important role in distortion and adhesive fracture, followed by the influence of adherends thickness. In contrast, the other parameters studied such as the adhesive strength, constraints' type, and adherend strength produced a limited effect on distortion. The results provide useful information about vehicle body structure's design in reducing the curing induced distortion.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Joint configurations: (a) with and (b) without adhesive

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Fig. 2

Geometry of the constraining methods: (a) self-piercing rivet and (b) screw

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Fig. 3

Transient distortion measurement setup

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Fig. 4

Marks for the distortion profile measurement

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Fig. 5

Selected time-temperature history to measure the deformation of the adherends throughout the curing process

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Fig. 6

Printed grids on the adherends and the strain measuring region

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Fig. 7

Transient distortion throughout the curing process for: (a) riveted and (b) rivet-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA 6061-T6 to 1.8-mm thick SAE1004 steel

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Fig. 8

Transient maximum distortion and gap in (a) riveting (case 1) and (b) rivet-bonding (case 2) of 1.0-mm thick AA 6061-T6 to 1.8-mm thick SAE1004 steel during curing process

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Fig. 9

Fracture evolution in the curing of SPR-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA6061-T6 to 1.8-mm thick SAE 1004 steel at: (a) room temperature, (b) 60 °C, (c) 120 °C, (d) 150 °C, (e) 180 °C, and (f) room temperature

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Fig. 10

(a) Adhesive on the adherends prior to marriage and (b) fractography of peeled adhesive-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA6061-T6 to 1.8-mm thick steel specimen (case 2)

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Fig. 11

Qualitative deformation analysis of screw-bonded aluminum AA6061-T6 and steel in the curing process: (a) initial, (b) heating, and (c) cooling

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Fig. 12

Influence of the constraint on the maximum distortion and gap in the adherends for (a) SPR-bonded (case 3) and (b) screw-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA6061-T6 to 1.2-mm thick SAE 1004 steel (case 4)

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Fig. 13

Influence of adhesive properties on the maximum distortion and gap in the adherends for rivet-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA6061-T6 to 1.8-mm thick SAE 1004 steel: (a) Henkel 5089 (case 2) and (b) Dow Flex adhesive (case 5)

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Fig. 14

Influence of steel adherend thickness on the maximum distortion and gap in the adherends for rivet-bonded 1.0-mm thick AA6061-T6 to: (a) 1.8-mm thick (case 2), (b) 1.2-mm (case 3) thick SAE 1004 steel

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Fig. 15

Influence of aluminum adherend thickness on the maximum distortion and gap in the adherends: (a) case 3 (1.0-mm thick aluminum to 1.2-mm thick SAE 1004 steel), (b) case 6 (1.6-mm thick aluminum to 1.2-mm thick SAE 1004 steel)

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Fig. 16

Influence of steel adherend strength on the maximum distortion and gap in the adherends: (a) case 3 (1.0-mm thick aluminum +1.2-mm thick SAE 1004 steel), (b) case 7 (1.0-mm thick aluminum +1.2-mm thick DP590 steel)

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