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Research Papers

Annealing of Compression Molded Aspherical Glass Lenses

[+] Author and Article Information
Bo Tao

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation,
University of Science and Technology of China,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
Department of Integrated Systems Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
210 Baker Systems Engineering,
1971 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210

Peng He

Department of Integrated Systems Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
210 Baker Systems Engineering,
1971 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210

Lianguan Shen

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation,
University of Science and Technology of China,
Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

Allen Yi

Department of Integrated Systems Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
210 Baker Systems Engineering,
1971 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: yi.71@osu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 3, 2013; final manuscript received June 19, 2013; published online November 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 136(1), 011008 (Nov 05, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4025395 History: Received January 03, 2013; Revised June 19, 2013

Residual stresses and refractive index of molded glass lenses are important quality indicators of their optical performance. In this research, the control of residual stresses and refractive index variation of molded glass lenses were experimentally investigated by postmolding annealing. Residual stresses were quantitatively measured using a circular polariscope. Refractive index was reconstructed and calculated by an optical setup based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer. In addition, geometry of the aspherical surface of lens was also evaluated before and after annealing. The comparison between the measured results before and after annealing showed that residual stresses and refractive index variation were well controlled and the shape of the aspherical surface was largely retained. This comprehensive experimental study demonstrated a suggestion to improve quality of the compression molded glass lens by postmolding annealing for high-precision optical applications.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a compression molding cycle and (b) time–temperature history of the compression-molded glass lenses

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Fig. 2

Aspherical lens: (a) design of aspherical lens (unit: mm) and (b) an aspherical glass lens sample

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Fig. 3

Time–temperature history of the annealing experiments

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Fig. 4

Circular polariscope for residual stresses measurement: (a) schematic of the circular polariscope and (b) the experiment setup of the circular polariscope

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Fig. 5

Cross-section of an axisymmetric lens

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Fig. 6

Optical setup for refractive index measurement

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Fig. 7

Residual stresses of the molded glass lens in cylindrical coordinates: (a) axial stress σz, (b) shear stress τrz, (c) radial stress σr, and (d) circumferential stress σθ

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Fig. 8

Residual stresses in the molded glass lens after experiment 1 in cylindrical coordinates: (a) axial stress σz, (b) shear stress τrz, (c) radial stress σr, and (d) circumferential stress σθ

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Fig. 9

Residual stresses in the molded glass lens after experiment 2 in cylindrical coordinates: (a) axial stress σz, (b) shear stress τrz, (c) radial stress σr, and (d) circumferential stress σθ

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Fig. 10

Residual stresses at middle section: (a) stresses preannealing, and (b) stresses postannealing experiment 1

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Fig. 11

A comparison of residual stresses at middle section of glass lens after annealing experiments 1 and 2

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Fig. 12

A comparison of the refractive index variation between molded glass lenses before and after annealing experiments

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Fig. 13

Comparison of curve deviations of aspherical surface of compression-molded glass lens before and after annealing experiment 1

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the curve deviations of the aspherical surface of the molded glass lens before and after annealing experiment 2

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