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Technical Briefs

Feasibility of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based Metalworking Fluids in Micromilling

[+] Author and Article Information
S. D. Supekar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122

O. B. Ozdoganlar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3815

S. J. Skerlos

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122
e-mail: skerlos@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received May 17, 2011; final manuscript received October 17, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Patrick Kwon.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 024501 (Mar 22, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4023375 History: Received May 17, 2011; Revised October 17, 2012

This article investigates the feasibility of using supercritical carbon dioxide based metalworking fluids (scCO2 metalworking fluids (MWFs)) to improve micromachinability of metals. Specifically, sets of channels were fabricated using micromilling on 304 stainless steel and 101 copper under varying machining conditions with and without scCO2 MWF. Burr formation, average specific cutting energy, surface roughness, and tool wear were analyzed and compared. Compared to dry machining, use of scCO2 MWF reduced burr formation in both materials, reduced surface roughness by up to 69% in 304 stainless steel and up to 33% in 101 copper, tool wear by up to 20% in 101 copper, and specific cutting energy by up to 87% in 304 stainless steel and up to 40% in 101 copper. The results demonstrate an improvement in micromachinability of the materials under consideration and motivate future investigations of scCO2 MWF-assisted micromachining to reveal underlying mechanisms of functionality, as well as to directly compare the performance of scCO2 MWF with alternative MWFs appropriate for micromachining.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

High-precision MMT system

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Fig. 2

Delivery nozzle Z and rapidly expanding scCO2 + oil mixture

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Fig. 3

scCO2 MWF delivery system: C. tank of food-grade carbon dioxide; V. gate valve; G. pressure gauge; N. check valve; R. CO2 compression pump; D. burst disc; P. PLC; S1. hydraulic oil sump; U. hydraulic oil pump; S2. vegetable oil reservoir; F. oil filter; E. oil pump; M. high pressure mixing chamber; L. oil level sensor; T. temperature sensor; O. solenoid valve; Z. spray nozzle

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Fig. 4

Cutting forces for Cu-101 when machining with scCO2 MWF at 3 μm/tooth chip load, 40 μm axial depth of cut, and 100 m/min cutting speed

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Fig. 5

Average specific cutting energies for (a) for AISI 304 stainless steel and (b) and Cu-101 with and without scCO2 MWF under all four machining conditions examined

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Fig. 6

(a) Wear progression and (b) SEM images of tool nose wear in dry and scCO2 assisted machining of Cu-101

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Fig. 7

Burr formation on AISI 304 and Cu-101 with and without scCO2 MWF for all machining conditions examined where + and – signs in parentheses represent levels of fz, ap, and vc in that order

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Fig. 8

Bottom surface roughness (Ra) for AISI 304 (left) and Cu-101 (right) with and without scCO2 MWF for all machining conditions examined

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