Research Papers

Characterization of Cutting Force Induced Surface Shape Variation in Face Milling Using High-Definition Metrology1

[+] Author and Article Information
Hui Wang

e-mail: huiwz@umich.edu

S. Jack Hu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2012 ASME Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC), June 2012.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received July 12, 2012; final manuscript received March 17, 2013; published online July 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Eric R. Marsh.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(4), 041014 (Jul 17, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1208; doi: 10.1115/1.4024290 History: Received July 12, 2012; Revised March 17, 2013

High-definition metrology (HDM) systems with fine lateral resolution are capable of capturing the surface shape on a machined part that is beyond the capability of measurement systems employed in manufacturing plants today. Such surface shapes can precisely reflect the impact of cutting processes on surface quality. Understanding the cutting processes and the resultant surface shape is vital to high-precision machining process monitoring and control. This paper presents modeling and experiments of a face milling process to extract surface patterns from measured HDM data and correlate these patterns with cutting force variation. A relationship is established between the instantaneous cutting forces and the observed dominant surface patterns along the feed and circumferential directions for face milling. Potential applications of this relationship in process monitoring, diagnosis, and control are also discussed for face milling. Finally a systematic methodology for characterizing cutting force induced surface variations for a generic machining process is presented by integrating cutting force modeling and HDM measurements.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wyatt, J. E., Smith, G. T., and T., B. J., 2006, “Surface Characterization and the Functionality of Mating Parts,” ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC), pp. 867–875.
Huynh, V. M., and Fan, Y., 1992, “Surface-Texture Measurement and Characterisation With Applications to Machine-Tool Monitoring,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 7(1), pp. 2–10. [CrossRef]
Whitehouse, D. J., 1997, “Surface Metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 8(9), pp. 955–972. [CrossRef]
Leith, E. N., 1997, “Overview of the Development of Holography,” J. Image Sci. Technol., 41, pp. 201–204.
Huang, Z., Shih, A. J., and Ni, J., 2006, “Laser Interferometry Hologram Registration for Three-Dimensional Precision Measurements,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(4), pp. 887–896. [CrossRef]
Colosimo, B. M., and Senin, N., 2010, Geometric Tolerances: Impact on Product Design, Quality Inspection and Statistical Process Monitoring, Springer, New York.
Wilkinson, P., Reuben, R. L., Jones, J. D. C., Barton, J. S., Hand, D. P., Carolan, T. A., and Kidd, S. R., 1997, “Surface Finish Parameters as Diagnostics of Tool Wear in Face Milling” Wear, 205(1–2), pp. 47–54. [CrossRef]
Liao, Y., Stephenson, D. A., and Ni, J., 2009, “Assessment of Tool Wear Based on Surface Texture Parameters,” ASME 2009 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 463–470.
Schmitz, T. L., Couey, J., Marshb, E., Mauntler, N., and Hughes, D., 2006, “Runout Effects in Milling: Surface Finish, Surface Location Error, and Stability” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(5), pp. 841–851. [CrossRef]
Bamberger, H., Ramachandran, S., Hong, E., and Katz, R., 2011, “Identification of Machining Chatter Marks on Surfaces of Automotive Valve Seats,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 133(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Baek, D. K., Ko, T. J., and Kim, H. S., 1997, “A Dynamic Surface Roughness Model for Face Milling,” Precis. Eng., 20(3), pp. 171–178. [CrossRef]
Kline, W. A., and DeVor, R. E., 1983, “The Effect of Runout on Cutting Geometry and Forces in End Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res., 23(1-2), pp. 123–140. [CrossRef]
Khorasani, M., Yazdi, R. S., and Safizadeh, M. S., 2012, “Analysis of Machining Parameters Effects on Surface Roughness: A review,” Int. J. Comput. Mater. Sci. Surf. Eng., 5(1), pp. 68–84. [CrossRef]
Sutherland, J. W., and DeVor, R. E., 1986, “Improved Method for Cutting Force and Surface Error Prediction in Flexible End Milling Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 108(4), pp. 269–279. [CrossRef]
Takeuchi, Y., and Sakamoto, M., 1964, “Analysis of Machining Error in Face Milling,” Proceedings of the International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference.
Camelio, J., Hu, S. J., and Zhong, W., 2004, “Diagnosis of Multiple Fixture Faults in Machining Processes Using Designated Component Analysis,” J. Manuf. Syst., 23(4), pp. 309–315. [CrossRef]
Liao, Y. G., and Hu, S. J., 2001, “An Integrated Model of a Fixture-Workpiece System for Surface Quality Prediction,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 17(11), pp. 810–818. [CrossRef]
Gu, F., Melkote, S. N., Kapoor, S. G., and DeVor, R. E., 1997, “A Model for the Prediction of Surface Flatness in Face Milling,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 119(4A), pp. 476–484. [CrossRef]
Ruzhong, Z., Wang, K. K., and Merchant, E., 1983, “Modelling of Cutting Force Pulsation in Face-Milling,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., 32(1), pp. 21–26. [CrossRef]
Andersson, C., Andersson, M., and Ståhl, J.-E., 2010, “Experimental Studies of Cutting Force Variation in Face Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(1), pp. 67–76. [CrossRef]
Wang, J.-J. J., Liang, S. Y., and Book, W. J., 1995, “Convolution Analysis of Milling Force Pulsation,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 116(1), pp. 17–25. [CrossRef]
Li, X. P., Zheng, H. Q., Wong, Y. S., and Nee, A. Y. C., 2000, “An Approach to Theoretical Modeling and Simulation of Face Milling Forces” J. Manuf. Process., 2(4), pp. 225–240. [CrossRef]
Wu, D. W., 1989, “A New Approach of Formulating the Transfer Function for Dynamic Cutting Processes,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 111, pp. 37–47. [CrossRef]
Montgomery, D., and Altintas, Y., 1991, “Mechanism of Cutting Force and Surface Generation in Dynamic Milling,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 113(2), pp. 160–168. [CrossRef]
Zhang, M., Levina, E., Djurdjanovic, D. and Ni, J., 2008, “Estimating Distributions of Surface Parameters for Classification Purposes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130, p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Liao, Y., Stephenson, D. A., and Ni, J., 2012, “Multiple-Scale Wavelet Decomposition, 3D Surface Feature Exaction and Applications,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 134(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
2003Surface Texture, Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay: ASME B46.1-2002 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Raja, J., Muralikrishnan, B., and Fu, S., 2002, “Recent Advances in Separation of Roughness, Waviness and Form,” Precis. Eng., 26(2), pp. 222–235. [CrossRef]
Fu, H. J., Devor, R. E., and Kapoor, S. G., 1984, “A Mechanistic Model for the Prediction of the Force System in Face Milling Operations,” ASME J. Eng. Ind.106, pp. 81–88. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Comparison among LHI-based HDM, conventional HDM, and CMM in plants: (a) measurement range and (b) measurement speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A milled surface measured by the LHI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Methodology review

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Dimensions of the aluminum blocks (mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Geometries of the workpiece: (a) block 1, (b) block 2, and (c) block 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Toolmark straightening

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The measured surface and surface profile of block 1, 2, and 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

A description of cutting insert engagement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The extracted short wavelength patterns with toolmarks straightened

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Profiles of the short wavelength pattern on block 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The short wavelength pattern on blocks 2 and 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The extracted pattern along the feed direction (toolmarks straightened)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Surface height versus MRR on block 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Surface height versus MRR on block 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The cutting force diagram for the cutter-workpiece system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Cutter rotational angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

An example of the insert path during machining ((a) insert 1 enters cutting and (b) insert 1 exists cutting)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

The relationship between the insert projection length (L) and toolmark length for different number of insert (block 3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Comparisons of the predicted and measured surface variation patterns along the feed direction on block 2 (a)–(c) and block 3 (d)–(f)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

The normalized predicted axial cutting force distribution on block 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

A comparison between the cutting force and surface profile along the circumferential direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

A scatter plot of the surface height versus MRR on for an engine head deck face

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Part design improvement for reducing the MRR variation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Surface variation reduction using a varying-feed method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

An engine head and surface error caused by the MRR variation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

K4 versus Remaining tool life

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

The surface pattern induced by insert-engagement variation under a faulty clamping condition (block 1)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In