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Research Papers

Characterization of Cutting Force Induced Surface Shape Variation in Face Milling Using High-Definition Metrology1

[+] Author and Article Information
Hui Wang

e-mail: huiwz@umich.edu

S. Jack Hu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2012 ASME Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC), June 2012.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received July 12, 2012; final manuscript received March 17, 2013; published online July 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Eric R. Marsh.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(4), 041014 (Jul 17, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1208; doi: 10.1115/1.4024290 History: Received July 12, 2012; Revised March 17, 2013

High-definition metrology (HDM) systems with fine lateral resolution are capable of capturing the surface shape on a machined part that is beyond the capability of measurement systems employed in manufacturing plants today. Such surface shapes can precisely reflect the impact of cutting processes on surface quality. Understanding the cutting processes and the resultant surface shape is vital to high-precision machining process monitoring and control. This paper presents modeling and experiments of a face milling process to extract surface patterns from measured HDM data and correlate these patterns with cutting force variation. A relationship is established between the instantaneous cutting forces and the observed dominant surface patterns along the feed and circumferential directions for face milling. Potential applications of this relationship in process monitoring, diagnosis, and control are also discussed for face milling. Finally a systematic methodology for characterizing cutting force induced surface variations for a generic machining process is presented by integrating cutting force modeling and HDM measurements.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison among LHI-based HDM, conventional HDM, and CMM in plants: (a) measurement range and (b) measurement speed

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Fig. 2

A milled surface measured by the LHI

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Fig. 3

Methodology review

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Fig. 4

Dimensions of the aluminum blocks (mm)

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Fig. 5

Geometries of the workpiece: (a) block 1, (b) block 2, and (c) block 3

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Fig. 6

Toolmark straightening

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Fig. 7

The measured surface and surface profile of block 1, 2, and 3

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Fig. 8

A description of cutting insert engagement

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Fig. 9

The extracted short wavelength patterns with toolmarks straightened

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Fig. 10

Profiles of the short wavelength pattern on block 1

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Fig. 11

The short wavelength pattern on blocks 2 and 3

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Fig. 12

The extracted pattern along the feed direction (toolmarks straightened)

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Fig. 13

Surface height versus MRR on block 2

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Fig. 14

Surface height versus MRR on block 3

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Fig. 15

The cutting force diagram for the cutter-workpiece system

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Fig. 16

Cutter rotational angles

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Fig. 17

An example of the insert path during machining ((a) insert 1 enters cutting and (b) insert 1 exists cutting)

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Fig. 18

The relationship between the insert projection length (L) and toolmark length for different number of insert (block 3)

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Fig. 19

Comparisons of the predicted and measured surface variation patterns along the feed direction on block 2 (a)–(c) and block 3 (d)–(f)

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Fig. 20

The normalized predicted axial cutting force distribution on block 3

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Fig. 21

A comparison between the cutting force and surface profile along the circumferential direction

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Fig. 22

A scatter plot of the surface height versus MRR on for an engine head deck face

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Fig. 23

Part design improvement for reducing the MRR variation

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Fig. 24

Surface variation reduction using a varying-feed method

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Fig. 25

An engine head and surface error caused by the MRR variation

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Fig. 26

K4 versus Remaining tool life

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Fig. 27

The surface pattern induced by insert-engagement variation under a faulty clamping condition (block 1)

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