Sustainable manufacturing requires simultaneous consideration of economic, environmental, and social implications associated with the production and delivery of goods. Fundamentally, sustainable manufacturing relies on descriptive metrics, advanced decision-making, and public policy for implementation, evaluation, and feedback. In this paper, recent research into concepts, methods, and tools for sustainable manufacturing is explored. At the manufacturing process level, engineering research has addressed issues related to planning, development, analysis, and improvement of processes. At a manufacturing systems level, engineering research has addressed challenges relating to facility operation, production planning and scheduling, and supply chain design. Though economically vital, manufacturing processes and systems have retained the negative image of being inefficient, polluting, and dangerous. Industrial and academic researchers are re-imagining manufacturing as a source of innovation to meet society's future needs by undertaking strategic activities focused on sustainable processes and systems. Despite recent developments in decision making and process- and systems-level research, many challenges and opportunities remain. Several of these challenges relevant to manufacturing process and system research, development, implementation, and education are highlighted.