Research Papers

Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurries for Chemically Vapor-Deposited Diamond Films

[+] Author and Article Information
Zewei Yuan

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shenyang University of Technology,
Shenyang 110870, China
e-mail: yuanzewei15@yahoo.com.cn

Zhuji Jin

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional
Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

Youjun Zhang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shenyang University of Technology,
Shenyang 110870, China

Quan Wen

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional,
Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received November 21, 2011; final manuscript received January 17, 2013; published online July 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Allen Y. Yi.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(4), 041006 (Jul 17, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1369; doi: 10.1115/1.4024034 History: Received November 21, 2011; Revised January 17, 2013

The objective of this study is to investigate slurries for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films based on the principle of thermokinetics combined with physical and chemical properties. The study uses the mechanical work, surface energy and oxidability of a slurry with diamond carbon as the main physical-chemical indicators in selecting the slurries. The study indentifies 10 CMP slurries of different oxidants, such as potassium ferrate, potassium permanganate, chromium trioxide and potassium dichromate, for CVD diamond film polishing. Prior to a CMP process, prepolishing with a boron carbide plate is performed to prepare a CVD diamond film with acceptable surface finish and flatness. After polishing with the CMP process a CVD diamond film is examined with optical microscopy, surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for information on surface finish and quality, material removal and mechanisms. The study demonstrates that among the ten CMP slurries, the one with potassium ferrate as an oxidant provides the highest material removal rate of 0.055 mg/hour, and the best surface finish (Ra = 0.187 nm) and surface quality (no surface scratches nor pits), which is followed by potassium permanganate. It then discusses how mechanical stress may promote the chemical oxidation of an oxidant with diamond by forming “C-O” and “C=O” on diamond surface. The study concludes that chemical mechanical polishing is effective for CVD diamond films.

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Fig. 1

Surface morphology and surface asperity height distribution of the CVD diamond films

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of chemical mechanical polishing

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Fig. 3

Boron carbide polishing plate

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Fig. 4

MRR and surface roughness of diamond films subjected to the step polishing

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Fig. 5

Surface micrographs of the CVD diamond films after mechanical polishing with (a) W10 diamond powders, (b) W5 diamond powders, (c) W2 diamond powders, and (d) W0.5 diamond powders

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Fig. 6

Surface metrology of the CVD diamond film after mechanical polishing with the W10 diamond powders

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Fig. 7

A valley in the diamond film from the CMP process

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Fig. 8

MRR with different slurries

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Fig. 9

Surface roughness of the CVD diamond film polished with different slurries

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Fig. 10

Surface micrographs of the CVD diamond film after CMP for 4 h

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Fig. 11

Polished surface with the new potassium ferrate slurry

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Fig. 12

Schematic diagram of chemical mechanical polishing process

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Fig. 13

Schematic diagram of the reaction process

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Fig. 14

XPS survey of the CVD diamond film polished with the new potassium ferrate slurry: (a) global survey, (b) carbon 1 s XPS spectra, (c) oxygen 1s XPS spectra, and (d) iron 2p XPS spectra

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Fig. 15

Schematic illustration of the possible “C-O” terminations at the diamond surface after the CMP process



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