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Research Papers

Laser Welding of AISI 316 Steel: Microstructural and Stress Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
B. S. Yilbas

Professor
e-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

Sohail Akhtar

Assistant Professor
e-mail: ssakhtar@kfupm.edu.sa
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
KFUPM Box 1913, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received September 28, 2011; final manuscript received February 26, 2013; published online May 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(3), 031018 (May 27, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1319; doi: 10.1115/1.4024155 History: Received September 28, 2011; Revised February 26, 2013

Thermal-stress field in the welded region was modeled incorporating the finite element model. Temperature and stress fields were predicted at different cooling periods. The morphological and metallurgical changes in the welded region were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The residual stress formed at the surface vicinity of the weld was determined using the X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that the residual stress predicted agreed well with the experimental data. The solidification cracking did not occur in the weld section during the cooling period. The microhardness in the weld cross-section was almost 1.4 times the base material hardness.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic view of laser welding and coordinate system

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Fig. 2

Surface temperature predictions and thermocouple data

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Fig. 3

Temperature variation along the x-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 4

Temperature contours inside the weld section at the cooling period initiation

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Fig. 5

von Mises stress variation along the x-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 6

von Mises stress contours inside the weld section at the beginning of the cooling period

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Fig. 7

von Mises stress contours inside the weld section at the end of the cooling period

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Fig. 8

Temperature variation along the y-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 9

von Mises stress variation along the y-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 10

Temperature variation along the z-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 11

von Mises stress variation along the z-axis for different cooling periods. The cooling period is initiated at t = 0.05 s.

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Fig. 12

Residual stress contours predicted in the welding region

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Fig. 13

SEM and optical micrographs of laser weld cross-section

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Fig. 14

XRD diffractogram of laser welded region

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Fig. 15

Linear dependence of d (211) with sin2ψ

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Fig. 16

Microhardness distribution across the weld cross-section

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