Research Papers

Orthogonal Microcutting of Thin Workpieces

[+] Author and Article Information
Saptaji Kushendarsyah

e-mail: ksaptaji@ntu.edu.sg

Subbiah Sathyan

e-mail: SathyanS@ntu.edu.sg
Nanyang Technological University,
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Singapore, 639798 Singapore

References cited in Table 4 are [42-44].

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received July 21, 2011; final manuscript received December 15, 2012; published online May 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Burak Ozdoganlar.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(3), 031004 (May 24, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1254; doi: 10.1115/1.4023710 History: Received July 21, 2011; Revised December 15, 2012

With a broader intention of producing thin sheet embossing molds, orthogonal cutting experiments of thin workpieces are conducted. Challenges in machining thin workpieces are many: machining induced stress and deformation, fixturing challenges, and substrate effects. A setup involving continuous orthogonal cutting with a single crystal diamond toolof an aluminum alloy (Al6061-T6) workpiece fixtured using an adhesive to reduce its thickness is used to study trends in forces, chip thickness, and to understand to what level of thickness we can machine the workpiece down to and in what form the adhesive fails. There are no significant changes observed in the forces and chip thickness between thick and thin workpieces during the experiments, meaning that the cutting energy required is the same in cutting thick or thin workpieces. The limitation to achieve thinner workpiece is attributed mainly due to the detachment of the thin workpiece by peel-off induced by adhesive failure mode, which occurs during initial chip formation as the tool initially engages with the workpiece. We use a finite element model to understand the stresses in the workpiece during this initial tool engagement when it is thick and when it is thin, as well as the effect of the adhesive itself and the effect of adhesive thickness. Simulation results show that the tensile stress induced by the tool at the workpiece-adhesive interface is higher for a thinner workpiece (45 μm) than a thicker workpiece (150 μm) and higher at the entrance. As such, a thinner workpiece is more susceptible to peel-off. The peeling of thin workpiece is induced when the high tensile stress at the interface exceeds the tensile-at-break value of the adhesive.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ng, S., and Wang, Z., 2008, “Hot Roller Embossing for Microfluidics: Process and Challenges,” Microsyst. Technol., 15(8), pp. 1149–1156. [CrossRef]
Ishizawa, N., Idei, K., Kimura, T., Noda, D., and Hattori, T., 2008, “Resin Micromachining by Roller Hot Embossing,” Microsyst. Technol., 14(9–11), pp. 1381–1388. [CrossRef]
Friedrich, C., and Kikkeri, B., 1995, “Rapid Fabrication of Molds by Mechanical Micromilling: Process Development,” Proc. SPIE, 2640, pp. 161–171. [CrossRef]
Hupert, M. L., Guy, W. J., Llopis, S. D., Shadpour, H., Rani, S., Nikitopoulos, D. E., and Soper, S. A., 2007, “Evaluation of Micromilled Metal Mold Masters for the Replication of Microchip Electrophoresis Devices,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 3(1), pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Hyuk-Jin, K., and Sung-Hoon, A., 2007, “Fabrication and Characterization of Microparts by Mechanical Micromachining: Precision and Cost Estimation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 221(B2), pp. 231–240. [CrossRef]
Hupert, M. L., Guy, W. J., Llopis, S. D., Situma, C., Rani, S., Nikitopoulos, D. E., and Soper, S. A., 2006, “High-Precision Micromilling for Low-Cost Fabrication of Metal Mold Masters,” Proceedings of the Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IV, San Jose, CA, SPIE, p. 61120B. [CrossRef]
Liu, X., DeVor, R. E., Kapoor, S. G., and Ehmann, K. F., 2004, “The Mechanics of Machining at the Microscale: Assessment of the Current State of the Science,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 126(4), pp. 666–678. [CrossRef]
Wang, B., Liag, Y. C., Zhao, Y., and Dong, S., 2006, “Measurement of the Residual Stress in the Micro Milled Thin-Walled Structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 48(1), pp. 1127–1130. [CrossRef]
Bourne, K. A., Kapoor, S. G., and DeVor, R. E., 2011, “Study of the Mechanics of the Micro-Groove Cutting Process,” Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Paper No. MSEC2011-50076. [CrossRef]
Jahanmir, S., and Suh, N. P., 1977, “Surface Topography and Integrity Effects on Sliding Wear,” Wear, 44(1), pp. 87–99. [CrossRef]
Campbell, C. E., Bendersky, L. A., Boettinger, W. J., and Ivester, R., 2006, “Microstructural Characterization of Al-7075-T651 Chips and Work Pieces Produced by High-Speed Machining,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 430(1–2), pp. 15–26. [CrossRef]
Schmutz, J., Brinksmeier, E., and Bischoff, E., 2001, “Sub-Surface Deformation in Vibration Cutting of Copper,” Precis. Eng., 25(3), pp. 218–223. [CrossRef]
To, S., Lee, W. B., and Cheung, C. F., 2003, “Orientation Changes of Aluminium Single Crystals in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 140(1–3), pp. 346–351. [CrossRef]
Kota, N., and Ozdoganlar, O. B., 2012, “Orthogonal Machining of Single-Crystal and Coarse-Grained Aluminum,” J. Manuf. Process., 14(2), pp. 126–134. [CrossRef]
Saptaji, K., and Subbiah, S., 2010, “Microstructural Changes During Precision Machining of Thin Substrates,” Key Eng. Mater., 447–448, pp. 76–80. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y., and Hoshi, T., 2000, “Optimization of Fixture Design With Consideration of Thermal Deformation in Face Milling,” J. Manuf. Syst., 19(5), pp. 332–340. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, K., Huang, H., Yin, L., and Yui, A., 2004, “Surface Waviness Controlled Grinding of Thin Mold Inserts Using Chilled Air as Coolant,” Mater. Manuf. Process., 19(2), pp. 341–354. [CrossRef]
Mori, T., Hiramatsu, T., and Shamoto, E., 2011, “Simultaneous Double-Sided Milling of Flexible Plates With High Accuracy and High Efficiency—Suppression of Forced Chatter Vibration With Synchronized Single-Tooth Cutters,” Precis. Eng., 35(3), pp. 416–423. [CrossRef]
Une, A., Yoshitomi, K., and Mochida, M., 2004, “Design of a New Porous Pin Chuck With Super High Flatness,” Proceedings of the 29th International Conference onMicro and Nano Engineering, Netherlands, pp. 933–940. [CrossRef]
Bifano, T. G., and Hosler, J. B., 1993, “Precision Grinding of Ultra-Thin Quartz Wafers,” ASME J. Eng. Industry, 115(3), pp. 258–262. [CrossRef]
Aoyama, T., and Kakinuma, Y., 2005, “Development of Fixture Devices for Thin and Compliant Workpieces,” CIRP Ann., 54(1), pp. 325–328. [CrossRef]
Kakinuma, Y., Aoyama, T., and Anzai, H., 2007, “Application of the Electro-Rheological Gel to Fixture Devices for Micro Milling Processes,” J. Adv. Mech. Des., Syst., Manuf., 1(3), pp. 387–398. [CrossRef]
Tani, Y., Ohshima, T., and Sato, H., 1992, “Application of Sintered Plastics to a Porous Vacuum Chuck for Diamond Turning of Aluminium Magnetic Discs,” CIRP Ann., 41(1), pp. 133–136. [CrossRef]
De Meter, E. C., 2005, “Characterization of the Quasi-Static Deformation of LAAG Joints Adhering Machined Steel Surfaces,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 127(2), pp. 350–357. [CrossRef]
De Meter, E. C., and Santhosh Kumar, J., 2010, “Assessment of Photo-Activated Adhesive Workholding (PAW) Technology for Holding ‘Hard-to-Hold’ Workpieces for Machining,” J. Manuf. Syst., 29(1), pp. 19–28. [CrossRef]
Petrie, E. M., 2000, Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Xu, Z.-H., and Rowcliffe, D., 2004, “Finite Element Analysis of Substrate Effects on Indentation Behaviour of Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films, 447–448, pp. 399–405. [CrossRef]
Clifford, C. A., and Seah, M. P., 2006, “Modelling of Nanomechanical Nanoindentation Measurements Using an AFM or Nanoindenter for Compliant Layers on Stiffer Substrates,” Nanotechnology, 17(21), pp. 5283–5292. [CrossRef]
Ohmura, T., Matsuoka, S., Tanaka, K., and Yoshida, T., 2001, “Nanoindentation Load-Displacement Behavior of Pure Face Centered Cubic Metal Thin Films on a Hard Substrate,” Thin Solid Films, 385(1–2), pp. 198–204. [CrossRef]
Sutter, G., Molinari, A., List, G., and Bi, X., 2012, “Chip Flow and Scaling Laws in High Speed Metal Cutting,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 134(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Shaw, M. C., 1984, Metal Cutting Principles, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Duke, A. J., and Stanbridge, R. P., 1968, “Cleavage Behavior of Bonds Made With Adherends Capable of Plastic Yield,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 12(7), pp. 1487–1503. [CrossRef]
Crocombe, A. D., and Adams, R. D., 1982, “Elasto-Plastic Investigation of the Peel Test,” J. Adhes., 13, pp. 241–267. [CrossRef]
Thouless, M. D., and Yang, Q. D., 2008, “A Parametric Study of the Peel Test,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 28(4–5), pp. 176–184. [CrossRef]
Williams, J. G., 1998, “Friction and Plasticity Effects in Wedge Splitting and Cutting Fracture Tests,” J. Mater. Sci., 33(22), pp. 5351–5357. [CrossRef]
Sun, C., Thouless, M. D., Waas, A. M., Schroeder, J. A., and Zavattieri, P. D., 2008, “Ductile-Brittle Transitions in the Fracture of Plastically Deforming, Adhesively Bonded Structures. Part II: Numerical Studies,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 45(17), pp. 4725–4738. [CrossRef]
Rodrigo, A., Perillo, P., and Ichimura, H., 2000, “On the Correlation of Substrate Microhardness With the Critical Load of Scratch Adherence for Hard Coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 124(2–3), pp. 87–92. [CrossRef]
Dassault Systèmes, 2009, Abaqus 6.9 Documentation, Providence, RI.
Shi, J., and Liu, C. R., 2004, “The Influence of Material Models on Finite Element Simulation of Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 126(4), pp. 849–857. [CrossRef]
Zorev, N. N., 1963, “Interrelationship Between Shear Processes Occuring Along Tool Face and on Shear Plane in Metal Cutting,” Proceedings of the International Research in Production Engineering Conference, ASME, New York, pp. 42–49.
Tabor, D., 1951, The Hardness of Metals, Clarendon Press, Gloucestershire, UK.
Gupta, N. K., Iqbal, M. A., and Sekhon, G. S., 2006, “Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Behavior of Thin Aluminum Plates Subjected to Impact by Blunt- and Hemispherical-Nosed Projectiles,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 32(12), pp. 1921–1944. [CrossRef]
Lesuer, D. R., Kay, G. J., and Leblanc, M. M., 2001, “Modeling Large Strain, High Rate Deformation in Metals,” Modelling the Performance of Engineering Structural Materials II. Proceedings of a Symposium, D. R.Lesuer and T. S.Srivatsan, eds., TMS, Warrendale, PA, pp. 75–86.
MatWeb, 2013, “MatWeb: Material Property Data,” http://www.matweb.com
Johnson, G. R., and Cook, W. H., 1983, “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, Netherlands, pp. 541–547.
Rosa, P. A. R., Kolednik, O., Martins, P. A. F., and Atkins, A. G., 2007, “The Transient Beginning to Machining and the Transition to Steady-State Cutting,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(12–13), pp. 1904–1915. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of the cutting process on thick workpiece (left) and thin workpiece (right). In a thin workpiece, the machined workpiece thickness (tw) is comparable to the depth of cut (to).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Similar mechanism of the nanoindentation of thin film (left) and microcutting of thin workpiece (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of microcutting of thin workpieces

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cutting force profile (top) and thrust force profile (bottom) of workpiece #2 for thin (a) and thick (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Forces profile for one pass of workpiece #1 at the thickness of about 141 μm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Chip thickness profile of workpiece #1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The formation of chip in the thick workpiece (top) and the peel mechanism of the thin workpiece captured by high speed camera (bottom) for adhesive thickness of 31 μm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The comparison of the (a) rolled peeled sample just after cutting finished and (b) after the peeled sample straighten with (c) unpeeled sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SEM Pictures of the bottom side of workpiece #2 (left) and #3 (right) after the thin workpieces peeled from the setup. No obvious remnant adhesive is observed suggesting adhesive failure mode.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Plot of the forces on the last pass when the thin workpieces peeled

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Element mesh for 45 μm workpiece thickness and 30 μm adhesive thickness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Incipient chip formation during the tool engagement and the area of the interest

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Tensile stress at the adhesive side on the interface during incipient chip formation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Shear stress at the adhesive side on the interface during incipient chip formation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Tensile stress across the thickness of the adhesive during incipient chip formation



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In