Research Papers

A Machining Science Approach to Dental Cutting of Glass Ceramics Using an Electric Handpiece and Diamond Burs

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiao-Fei Song

e-mail: xiaofeisong@tju.edu.cn

Jian-Hui Peng, Bin Lin

Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and
Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China

Ling Yin

School of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
James Cook University,
Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 19, 2012; final manuscript received November 15, 2012; published online January 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Patrick Kwon.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(1), 011014 (Jan 25, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1216; doi: 10.1115/1.4023273 History: Received July 19, 2012; Revised November 15, 2012

Dental cutting using handpieces has been the art of dentists in restorative dentistry. This paper reports on the scientific approach of dental cutting of two dental ceramics using a high-speed electric handpiece and coarse diamond burs in simulated clinical conditions. Cutting characteristics (forces, force ratios, specific removal energy, surface roughness, and morphology) of feldspar and leucite glass ceramics were investigated as functions of the specific material removal rate, Qw and the maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax. The results show that up and down cutting remarkably affected cutting forces, force ratios, and specific cutting energy but did not affect surface roughness and morphology. Down cutting resulted in much lower tangential and normal forces, and specific cutting energy, but higher force ratios. The cutting forces increased with the Qw and hmax while the specific cutting energy decreased with the Qw and hmax. The force ratios and surface roughness showed no correlations with the Qw and hmax. Surface morphology indicates that the machined surfaces contained plastically flowed and brittle fracture regions at any Qw and hmax. Better surface quality was achieved at the lower Qw and the smaller hmax. These results provide fundamental data and a scientific understanding of ceramic cutting using electric dental handpieces in dental practice.

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Fig. 1

(a) Simulated dental cutting using a handpiece/bur; (b) schematic diagram of movements of a handpiece/bur and a specimen during the cutting

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Fig. 2

Tangential forces versus specific material removal rate, Qw and maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax

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Fig. 3

Normal forces versus specific material removal rate, Qw and maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax

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Fig. 4

Force ratios versus specific material removal rate, Qw and maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax

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Fig. 5

Specific energy versus specific material removal rate, Qw and maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax

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Fig. 6

Surface roughness versus specific material removal rate, Qw and maximum undeformed chip thickness, hmax

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Fig. 7

SEM micrographs of the machined surfaces of (a) feldspar ceramic and (b) leucite ceramic at the specific material removal rate of 0.15 mm3/mm/min and the maximum undeformed chip thickness of 0.25 μm; (c) feldspar ceramic and (d) leucite ceramic at the specific material removal rate of 4.5 mm3/mm/min and the maximum undeformed chip thickness of 0.87 μm



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