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Research Papers

An Automated and Accurate CNC Programming Approach to Five-Axis Flute Grinding of Cylindrical End-Mills Using the Direct Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahmoud M. Rababah

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The Hashemite University,
Zarqa 13115, Jordan

Zezhong C. Chen

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8, Canada
e-mail: zezhong.chen@concordia.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 30, 2012; final manuscript received November 13, 2012; published online January 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Allen Y. Yi.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(1), 011011 (Jan 22, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4023271 History: Received September 30, 2012; Revised November 13, 2012

In solid carbide end-mills, the flutes significantly affect the tool's cutting performance and life, and the core radius mainly affects the tool's rigidity. The current CNC programming techniques can correctly determine the orientation of the wheel so that it grinds the rake face with the specified rake angle; however, it cannot accurately determine the wheel location for the direct method and, consequently, the desired core radius is not guaranteed. To address this problem, a new CNC programming approach is proposed to accurately calculate the wheel orientation and location (WOL) in 5-axis grinding of the cylindrical end-mill flutes. In this work, a new concept of 5-axis CNC grinding—effective grinding edge (EGE)—is first proposed to represent the instantaneous grinding edge of the wheel, and the parametric equations of the effective grinding edge are formulated. The wheel orientation and location in 5-axis flute grinding are calculated automatically and accurately so that the rake angle of the rake face and the core radius are ensured. The new approach is verified with several examples in this work. Therefore, it can improve the end-mill quality and lays a good foundation for the computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAE/CAM) of end-mills.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The plot of a basic flute profile of a four flute end-mill in the tool coordinate system

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Fig. 2

Illustration of the parameters of the cylindrical end-mill envelope in the tool coordinate system

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Fig. 3

Illustration of constructing the unit normal of the rake face at a side cutting edge point

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Fig. 4

The kinematics chain of a 5-axis tool grinding machine

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Fig. 5

Profiles of four standard grinding-wheels

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Fig. 6

The effective cutting edge and the envelope of the tool revolving surface at two adjacent locations

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Fig. 7

The effective grinding edge and the envelope of the grinding-wheel revolving surface at two adjacent locations

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Fig. 8

Profiles and geometric parameters of three standard grinding-wheels

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Fig. 9

The geometric principle of determining the wheel orientation for 5-axis grinding of the cylindrical end-mill flutes

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Fig. 10

The ground flute shape

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Fig. 11

Standard grinding-wheels used to grind the end-mill flutes

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Fig. 12

A cylindrical flat end-mill having accurate core radius ground using standard grinding-wheel a

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Fig. 13

Contour plots of the core radii deviation errors for cylindrical end-mill ground in job 1

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Fig. 14

A cylindrical flat end-mill having accurate core radius ground using standard grinding-wheel b

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Fig. 15

A cylindrical flat end-mill having accurate core radius ground using standard grinding-wheel c

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