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Research Papers

Quantifying the Visibility of Surface Distortions in Class “A” Automotive Exterior Body Panels

[+] Author and Article Information
K. D. Fernholz

Ford Motor Company,
MD 3182/RIC,
P.O. Box 2053,
Dearborn, MI 48121-2053
e-mail: Kedzie.fernholz@gmail.com

1Present address: GE Aviation Systems, 1 Neumann Way, M/D U5, Cincinnati, OH 45215.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 15, 2010; final manuscript received September 5, 2012; published online January 7, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Eric R. Marsh.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(1), 011001 (Jan 07, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-10-1381; doi: 10.1115/1.4007984 History: Received December 15, 2010; Revised September 05, 2012

Visible distortions in Class “A” automotive surfaces are unacceptable to vehicle customers and therefore are considered to be cosmetic defects. The automotive industry currently relies upon subjective assessment of the severity of these distortions to determine whether a component's surface appearance is acceptable. Given the inherent variability in subjective assessments, however, an objective measurement for assessing the severity of defects would be of great benefit to the industry. The issues that need to be addressed to objectively quantify the severity of one particular type of surface distortion are discussed and a methodology for quantifying the severity of that surface distortion in a way that correlates to human perception is proposed. Experimental and finite element model data supporting the proposed methodology is presented.

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References

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Fernholz, K. D., Blair, B., Wang, C., and Lazarz, K., 2008, “Bond-Line Read-Through Investigation for Composite Closure Panels: Initial DOE Results,” SPE Automotive Composites Conference, Troy, MI.
Fernholz, K. D., Lazarz, K., and Wang, C., 2009, “Preliminary Results From an Experimental Evaluation of the Root Causes of Bond-Line Read-Through,” The Adhesion Society 32nd Annual Meeting, Savannah, GA, pp. 285–287.
Fernholz, K. D., Wang, C., and Lazarz, K., 2009, “The Influence of SMC Formulation, Inner Panel Thickness, and Bond Stand-Offs on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity,” SPE Automotive Composites Conference, Troy, MI.
Fernholz, K. D., Fuchs, H., Deslauriers, P., Lararz, K., and Wang, C., 2010, “The Influence of Bond Stand-Offs and Adhesive Cure Temperature on Bond-Line Read-Through Severity,” Composites 2010, Las Vegas, NV.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of global (a) versus local surface (b) deviations

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Fig. 2

Profilometer scan of a paint can lid bonded to a piece of steel with single drop of adhesive

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Fig. 3

Profilometer line scan through the drop of adhesive used to bond a paint can lid to a piece of steel

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Fig. 4

Curvature map of a Class “A” surface prior to post processing

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Fig. 5

Photograph of the back side of a freestanding SMC outer panel with epoxy adhesive applied

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Fig. 6

Curvature map of the Class “A” surface of the panel in Fig. 5 after filtering and masking

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Fig. 7

Predicted displacement (altitude), slope, and curvature for an 2.5 mm thick SMC freestanding outer panel with an idealized 9 mm wide × 4.5 mm high epoxy adhesive bead

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Fig. 8

Schematic of experimental assemblies

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Fig. 9

Filtered curvature maps of the twelve painted assemblies

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Fig. 10

Curvature maps of the twelve painted assemblies prior to masking and filtering

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the curvature calculated from profilometer data to the ondulo curvature values after filtering in an SMC “lab-scale” assembly

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Fig. 12

Comparison of measured and predicted curvatures at a typical bond-line section for an SMC assembly

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