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Research Papers

A Test Setup for Evaluation of Harmonic Distortions in Precision Inertial Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Swavik A. Spiewak

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Calgary,
Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: sspiewak@ucalgary.ca

Stephen J. Ludwick

Director of Advanced Technology
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Mem. ASME
Aerotech, Inc.,
101 Zeta Drive,
Pittsburgh, PA 15238;
Mechanical Engineering and
Materials Science Department,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15238-2897
e-mail: SLudwick@aerotech.com

Glenn Hauer

Senior Vice President
Product Management,
INOVA Geophysical,
Stafford, TX 77477
e-mail: glenn.hauer@inovageo.com

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received July 1, 2009; final manuscript received October 6, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Kornel Ehmann.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 021015 (Mar 25, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-09-1183; doi: 10.1115/1.4023706 History: Received July 01, 2009; Revised October 06, 2012

Steadily improving performance of inertial sensors necessitates significant enhancement of the methods and equipment used for their evaluation. As the nonlinearity of sensors decreases and gets close to that of the exciters, new challenges arise. One of them, addressed in this research, is a superposition of errors caused by the nonlinearity of tested devices with nonlinear distortions of excitation employed for experimental evaluation. This can lead to a cancellation, at least partial, of the effects of both imperfections and underestimation of the actual distortions of the evaluated sensors. We implement and analyze several system architectures and evaluate components of applicable motion generation systems from the viewpoint of satisfying the relevant, often conflicting requirements posed by the evaluation of high performance inertial sensors. Robust mechanical integration of the guidance, actuation, and measurement functions emerges as a key factor for achieving the needed quality of generated test patterns. We find precision air bearing stages, such as ABL1500 series (Aerotech) most suitable for implementing the needed experimental setup. We propose an architecture with two reciprocating stages, implement and evaluate its core components, and illustrate its performance with experimental results.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Hexaglide parallel kinematics machine tool, top [9], and a miniature, precision surgical robot, bottom [10]

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Fig. 2

Amplitude spectral density, ρ̂(f), computed from PSD of the investigated high performance MST sensor

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Fig. 3

Noise of the investigated sensor versus time plotted in the acceleration and displacement domain

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Fig. 4

A block diagram of the investigated sensors

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup with piezoelectric planar exciter model PI-733.2CL [48]

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Fig. 6

Acceleration based estimation of displacement (a) the actual displacement and investigated acceleration, (b) the estimated and true displacement, nearly overlapping, and their difference magnified 40×

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Fig. 7

Estimated velocity of the sensor and its deviation from the reference velocity magnified 50×

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Fig. 8

Representative spectra of acceleration generated by the air bearing stage and measured by the tested sensor

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Fig. 9

ELECTRO-SEIS® model 129 exciter [26] used at the Seismic Test Facility [27]

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Fig. 10

Example frequency spectrum of a tested proprietary accelerometer and commercial geophone [27]

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Fig. 11

The master and slave air bearing stages mounted on a 500 kg granite slab

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Fig. 12

Qualitative comparison of the test setups with respect to their stroke and precision (a), and with respect to the stroke and frequency bandwidth (b)

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Fig. 13

Linearity error of the PP and PL exciters as a function of the excitation frequency [44]

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Fig. 14

Linear piezoelectric exciter (PL) with two tested accelerometers

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Fig. 15

Key components of the experimental setup with the ABL2000 exciter and digital SiFlex accelerometer

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Fig. 16

Representative magnitude spectra of displacement obtained for the air bearings stage ABL2000

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Fig. 17

Example plots of the measured displacement before stage tuning (a), and after (b)

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Fig. 18

Example deviations of the stage position from the nominal waveform

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Fig. 19

Representative spectra of displacement generated by the ABL1500 stage and measured by its integral sensors, excitation 12 Hz, 120 μm amplitude

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Fig. 20

Representative spectra of displacement generated by the ABL1500 stage and measured by its integral sensors, excitation 25 Hz, 1.5 μm amplitude

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