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Research Papers

A Piezoelectric Servo Feed Drive for Electro Discharge Machining System Industrial Applications Using Linear Ultrasonic Motor

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Shafik

Principal Technology Investigator
Mem. ASME
Faculty of Art & Design and Technology,
University of Derby,
Derby, DE22 1GB, UK
e-mail: m.shafik@derby.ac.uk

H. S. Abdalla

Professor
School of Architecture,
Computing and Engineering,
University of East London,
London, E16 2RD, UK
e-mail: h.s.abdalla@uel.ac.uk

P. Fransson

Teknologisk Institute,
Oslo 0580, Norway
e-mail: per.fransson@teknologisk.no

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 22, 2010; final manuscript received December 3, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bin Wei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 025001 (Mar 22, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-10-1022; doi: 10.1115/1.4023707 History: Received January 22, 2010; Revised December 03, 2012

A new servo drive for electro discharge machining industrial applications is presented in this paper. The development processes of the servo feed drive have passed through three main stages. The first stage focused on design and development of a linear piezoelectric ultrasonic motor. The second one concentrated on development of an electronic driver and its embedded software. The integration, testing, and validation in electro discharge machining system, was the last stage of the development lifecycle. The linear piezoelectric ultrasonic motor consists of three main parts, the stator, rotor, and sliding element. The motor design process, basic configuration, principles of motion, finite element analysis, and experimental examination of the main characteristics are discussed in this paper. The electronic driver of the ultrasonic motor consists of two main stages, the booster and piezoelectric amplifier. The piezo amplifier consists of four output transistors, a push-pull and bridge, connected in order to achieve the necessary electrical parameters to drive and control the motor servo feed drive traveling speed. The essential experimental arrangement to implement and examine the developed ultrasonic servo feed drive in an electro discharge machining system was carried out. The initial results showed that the servo drive is able to provide: a reversible directional of motion, no-load traveling speed equal to 28 mm per s, maximum load of 0.78 N, a resolution <50 μm, and a dynamic time response <10 ms. The electron microscopic micro examination into the machined samples showed that: ultrasonic servo drive showed a clear improvement in the surface profile finish, a notable reduction in the stability, processing time, material removal rate, arcing, and short-circuiting teething phenomena. This was verified by assessing the electrode movements, the variations of the inter electrode gap voltage, current, and feedback control signals.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Proposed dual mode standing wave linear USM using a single flexural vibration transducer

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Fig. 2

USM stator connections arrangements and principles used to generate two directions of motion

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Fig. 3

Practice used to create bidirectional of motion using transverse bending vibration modes excited at a frequency close to longitudinal vibration mode

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Fig. 4

The stator (vibration transducer) displacement versus the frequency for the developed USM (ac 50 V)

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Fig. 5

USM rotary structure model transverse vibration mode (frequency 42,200 Hz and ac 50 V)

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Fig. 6

USM rotary structure model longitudinal vibration mode (frequency 42,200 Hz and ac 50 V)

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Fig. 7

Dynamic USM models used to determine the dimensions of the USM parts and optimize the bearing preload force on the USM linear structure

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Fig. 8

Developed piezoelectric ultrasonic motor (a) actual components using a single piezo-ceramic flexural vibration transducer (b) fabricated prototype

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Fig. 9

Block diagram of the test rig arrangement used to test and measure the characteristics of the developed servo drive prototype

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Fig. 10

Actual test rig arrangement used to test and measure the characteristics of the developed USM prototype

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Fig. 11

The variation of the current versus input voltage for the developed USM prototype (no-load)

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Fig. 12

The variation of the traveling speed versus frequency for the developed USM prototype (no-load)

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Fig. 13

The variation of the traveling speed versus input voltage for the developed USM prototype (no-load)

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Fig. 14

The variation of the traveling speed versus applied load for the developed USM prototype

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Fig. 15

The circuit diagram of the dc/dc converter part of the developed piezoelectric ultrasonic servo control feed drive

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Fig. 16

The electronic circuit for the piezoelectric driver including the oscillator, voltage amplifier, and the push-pull amplifier, which is part of the developed piezoelectric ultrasonic servo control feed drive

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Fig. 17

The developed piezoelectric USM servo feed drive installed in the EDM machine (a Elektra R-50 ZNC model)

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Fig. 18

Feedback control signal and interelectrode gap voltage variation for EDM machining using the current dc servo control system (gap current 5 A, gap voltage of 38 V, and duty cycle 8 μs)

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Fig. 19

Feedback control signal and interelectrode gap voltage variation for EDM machining using the developed piezoelectric USM control system (gap current 5 A, gap voltage of 38 V, and duty cycle 8 μs)

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Fig. 20

EDM surface finish obtained using dc servo control feed system using current level of 8 amperes, “on” time of 50 μs, duty cycle of 12 μs

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Fig. 21

EDM surface finish obtained using USM servo control feed system using current level of 8 A, “on” time of 50 μs, duty cycle of 12 μs

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Fig. 22

EDM surface finish obtained using dc servo control feed system using current level of 10 A, “on” time of 50 μs, duty cycle of 12 μs

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Fig. 23

EDM surface finish obtained using piezoelectric USM control feed system using current level of 10 A, “on” time of 50 μs, duty cycle of 12 μs

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Fig. 24

The degree of roughness versus the machining parameters for both systems of control using dc servomotor and USM

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Fig. 25

The material removal rate versus various electro-machining parameters for both systems of control using dc servomotor and piezoelectric USM

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