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Research Papers

Melting, Vaporization, and Resolidification in a Thin Gold Film Irradiated by Multiple Femtosecond Laser Pulses

[+] Author and Article Information
Yuwen Zhang

Fellow ASME
e-mail: zhangyu@missouri.edu

J. K. Chen

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65211

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received January 2, 2012; final manuscript received September 10, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bin Wei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 021007 (Mar 22, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-12-1004; doi: 10.1115/1.4023711 History: Received January 02, 2012; Revised September 10, 2012

Melting, vaporization, and resolidification in a gold thin film subject to multiple femtosecond laser pulses are numerically studied in the framework of the two-temperature model. The solid-liquid phase change is modeled using a kinetics controlled model that allows the interfacial temperature to deviate from the melting point. The kinetics controlled model also allows superheating in the solid phase during melting and undercooling in the liquid phase during resolidification. Superheating of the liquid phase caused by nonequilibrium evaporation of the liquid phase is modeled by adopting the wave hypothesis, instead of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The melting depth, ablation depth, and maximum temperature in both the liquid and solid are investigated and the result is compared with that from the Clausius–Clapeyron equation based vaporization model. The vaporization wave model predicts a much higher vaporization speed, which leads to a deeper ablation depth. The relationship between laser processing parameters, including pulse separation time and pulse number, and the phase change effect are also studied. It is found that a longer separation time and larger pulse number will cause lower maximum temperature within the gold film and lower depths of melting and ablation.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Irradiation by a 0.6 J/cm2 single pulse

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Fig. 3

Temperature distributions along the film thickness at a time delay from 1 to 200 ps

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Fig. 4

The relationship between the laser fluence, maximum lattice temperature, and melting depth with single pulses

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Fig. 5

The relationship between the laser fluence, maximum surface temperature, and ablation depth with single pulses

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Fig. 6

Irradiation by two consecutive 0.3 J/cm2 laser pulses with a separation time of 280 ps

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Fig. 7

Relationship between the maximum temperature and melting depth by two consecutive 0.3 J/cm2 laser pulses with a separation time from 1 to 6000 ps

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Fig. 8

Relationship between the maximum temperature and melting depth by two consecutive 0.35 J/cm2 laser pulses with a separation time from 1 to 6000 ps

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Fig. 9

Relationship between the maximum temperature and ablation depth by two consecutive 0.3 J/cm2 laser pulses with a separation time from 1 to 6000 ps

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Fig. 10

Dependence of the maximum temperature on the pulses number and separation time

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Fig. 11

Dependence of the melting depth on the pulses number and separation time

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the melting depth between the multiple pulse irradiation and the single pulse irradiation

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Fig. 13

Dependence of the surface temperature on the pulses number and separation time

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Fig. 14

Dependence of the ablation depth on the pulses number and separation time

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the ablation depth between the multiple pulse irradiation and the single pulse irradiation

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