Research Papers

Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Gas Metal Arc Weld Pool Surface From Reflected Laser Pattern

[+] Author and Article Information
YuMing Zhang

e-mail: ymzhang@engr.uky.edu
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing and Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received February 15, 2011; final manuscript received October 1, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 021002 (Mar 22, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1052; doi: 10.1115/1.4023374 History: Received February 15, 2011; Revised October 01, 2012

A system has been developed to measure the three-dimensional weld pool surface geometry in the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. It utilizes the specular nature of the weld pool surface by projecting a five-line laser pattern onto the surface and imaging its reflection. Specifically, the laser reflection is intercepted by an imaging plane and captured using a high speed camera. The reflected pattern is used to reconstruct the weld pool surface based on the law of reflection. Two reconstruction algorithms, referred to as center-points reconstruction and piece-wise weld pool surface reconstruction algorithm, are applied to sequentially reconstruct the weld pool height and three-dimensional surface geometry. Reconstructions has been conducted using simulated weld pool surface to provide a method to compare the reconstruction result with a known surface and evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. It is found that the proposed method is capable of reconstructing weld pool surface with acceptable accuracy. The height error of reconstructed center-points is less than 0.1 mm and the error of estimated weld pool boundary is less than 10%. Reconstruction results from images captured in welding experiments are also demonstrated.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Renwick, R. J., and Richardson, R. W., 1983, “Experimental Investigation of GTA Weld Pool Oscillations,” Welding J., 62, pp. 29–35.
Li, P. J., and Zhang, Y. M., 2001, “Precision Sensing of Arc Length in GTAW Based on Arc Light Spectrum,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123(1), pp. 62–65. [CrossRef]
Rokhlin, S. I., and Guu, A. C., 1990, “Computerized Radiographic Sensing and Control of an Arc Welding Process,” Welding J., 69, pp. 83–97.
Chin, B. A., Madsen, N. H., and Goodling, J. S., 1983, “Infrared Thermography of Sensing the Arc Welding Process,” Welding J., 62, pp. 227–232.
Richardson, R. W., 1984, “Coaxial Arc Weld Pool Viewing for Process Monitoring and Control,” Welding J., 63(3), pp. 43–50.
Kovacevic, R., Zhang, Y. M., and Ruan, S., 1995, “Sensing and Control of Weld Pool Geometry for Automated GTA Welding,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 117(2), pp. 210–222. [CrossRef]
Mnich, C., Al-Bayat, F., Debrunner, C., Steele, J., and Vincent, T., 2004, “In Situ Weld Pool Measurement Using Stereovision,” Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Denver, CO.
Zhao, D. B., Yi, J. Q., Chen, S. B., Wu, L., and Chen, Q., 2003, “Extraction of Three-Dimensional Parameters for Weld Pool Surface in Pulsed GTAW With Wire Filler,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125(3), pp. 493–503. [CrossRef]
Kovacevic, R., and Zhang, Y. M., 1996, “Sensing Free Surface of Arc Weld Pool Using Specular Reflection Principle and Analysis,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 210(6), pp. 553–564. [CrossRef]
Song, H. S., and Zhang, Y. M., 2008, “Measurement and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Specular Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Pool Surface,” Welding J., 87, pp. 85–95.
Ma, X., and Zhang, Y. M., 2009, “Reflection of Illumination Laser From Gas Metal Arc Weld Pool Surface,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 20(11), p. 115105. [CrossRef]
Ma, X. J., and Zhang, Y. M., 2011, “Gas Metal Arc Weld Pool Surface Imaging: Modeling and Processing,” Welding J., 90(5), pp. 85–94.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

System schematic of GMAW-P weld pool surface observation system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Bead-on-plate experiment results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flow chart for image processing algorithm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Line extraction results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Reflection of projected laser pattern on weld pool surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Definition of fan angle and inter-beam angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Direct captured weld pool surface geometry in GMAW-P

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Parameter definition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Principle of surface-normal based reconstruction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Difference between n→i,j and n→' i,j

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Estimation of surface normal

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulation results (a) simulated weld pool surface with projected laser pattern (b) calculated reflected pattern

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Principle of center-points reconstruction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Principle of patch-based weld pool surface reconstruction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Reflected laser pattern captured in GMAW-P processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Calculated reflection from reconstructed weld pool surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Reconstructed weld pool surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Simulated weld pool surface and corresponding reflection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Reconstruction result of center point reconstruction (a) reconstructed center points and actual center points and (b) center point reconstruction height error for each line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Reconstructed pattern error for different base patch width

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Reflected pattern generated using reconstructed weld pool surface and simulated weld pool surface (a) reconstructed weld pool surface and (b) reflected pattern generated using reconstructed weld pool surface



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In