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Research Papers

Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Gas Metal Arc Weld Pool Surface From Reflected Laser Pattern

[+] Author and Article Information
YuMing Zhang

e-mail: ymzhang@engr.uky.edu
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing and Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
University of Kentucky,
Lexington, KY 40506

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received February 15, 2011; final manuscript received October 1, 2012; published online March 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 135(2), 021002 (Mar 22, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-11-1052; doi: 10.1115/1.4023374 History: Received February 15, 2011; Revised October 01, 2012

A system has been developed to measure the three-dimensional weld pool surface geometry in the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. It utilizes the specular nature of the weld pool surface by projecting a five-line laser pattern onto the surface and imaging its reflection. Specifically, the laser reflection is intercepted by an imaging plane and captured using a high speed camera. The reflected pattern is used to reconstruct the weld pool surface based on the law of reflection. Two reconstruction algorithms, referred to as center-points reconstruction and piece-wise weld pool surface reconstruction algorithm, are applied to sequentially reconstruct the weld pool height and three-dimensional surface geometry. Reconstructions has been conducted using simulated weld pool surface to provide a method to compare the reconstruction result with a known surface and evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. It is found that the proposed method is capable of reconstructing weld pool surface with acceptable accuracy. The height error of reconstructed center-points is less than 0.1 mm and the error of estimated weld pool boundary is less than 10%. Reconstruction results from images captured in welding experiments are also demonstrated.

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References

Renwick, R. J., and Richardson, R. W., 1983, “Experimental Investigation of GTA Weld Pool Oscillations,” Welding J., 62, pp. 29–35.
Li, P. J., and Zhang, Y. M., 2001, “Precision Sensing of Arc Length in GTAW Based on Arc Light Spectrum,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123(1), pp. 62–65. [CrossRef]
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Zhao, D. B., Yi, J. Q., Chen, S. B., Wu, L., and Chen, Q., 2003, “Extraction of Three-Dimensional Parameters for Weld Pool Surface in Pulsed GTAW With Wire Filler,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125(3), pp. 493–503. [CrossRef]
Kovacevic, R., and Zhang, Y. M., 1996, “Sensing Free Surface of Arc Weld Pool Using Specular Reflection Principle and Analysis,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 210(6), pp. 553–564. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

System schematic of GMAW-P weld pool surface observation system

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Fig. 2

Bead-on-plate experiment results

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Fig. 3

Flow chart for image processing algorithm

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Fig. 4

Line extraction results

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Fig. 5

Reflection of projected laser pattern on weld pool surface

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Fig. 6

Definition of fan angle and inter-beam angle

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Fig. 7

Direct captured weld pool surface geometry in GMAW-P

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Fig. 8

Parameter definition

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Fig. 9

Simulation results (a) simulated weld pool surface with projected laser pattern (b) calculated reflected pattern

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Fig. 10

Estimation of surface normal

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Fig. 11

Difference between n→i,j and n→' i,j

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Fig. 12

Principle of surface-normal based reconstruction

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Fig. 13

Principle of center-points reconstruction

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Fig. 14

Principle of patch-based weld pool surface reconstruction

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Fig. 15

Simulated weld pool surface and corresponding reflection

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Fig. 16

Reconstruction result of center point reconstruction (a) reconstructed center points and actual center points and (b) center point reconstruction height error for each line

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Fig. 17

Reconstructed pattern error for different base patch width

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Fig. 18

Reflected pattern generated using reconstructed weld pool surface and simulated weld pool surface (a) reconstructed weld pool surface and (b) reflected pattern generated using reconstructed weld pool surface

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Fig. 19

Reflected laser pattern captured in GMAW-P processes

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Fig. 20

Calculated reflection from reconstructed weld pool surface

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Fig. 21

Reconstructed weld pool surface

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