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Technology Reviews

Issues in Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter–Rock Interaction From a Metal Machining Point of View—Part II: Bit Performance and Rock Cutting Mechanics

[+] Author and Article Information
Kornel Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208

References numbered [1] to [100] are listed in Part I. Che, D., Han, P., Guo, P., and Ehmann, K., 2012, “Issues in Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter–Rock Interaction From a Metal Machining Point of View—Part I: Temperature, Stresses, and Forces,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 134(6), p. 064001.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 6, 2012; final manuscript received August 17, 2012; published online November 1, 2012. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 134(6), 064002 (Nov 01, 2012) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007623 History: Received August 06, 2012; Revised August 17, 2012

In Part I of this paper, the issues related to temperature, stress and force were reviewed and parallels were drawn between both metal machining and rock cutting. Part II discusses the issues more directly related to polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit performance and rock mechanics. However, relevant issues in various metal cutting processes will continue to be presented to clarify the gaps and similarities between these two classes of processes.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
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Mendoza, J. A., Gamwo, I. K., Zhang, W., and Lin, J. S., 2010, “Discrete Element Modeling of Rock Cutting Using Crushable Particles,” 44th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, Salt Lake City, UT, p. 10–232.
Huang, H., Detournay, E., and Bellier, B., 1999, “Discrete Element Modeling of Rock Cutting,” Vail Rocks 1999, 37th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), American Rock Mechanics Association, Vail, CO, p. 99–0123.
Rojek, J., Oñate, E., Labra, C., and Kargl, H., 2011, “Discrete Element Modelling of Rock Cutting,” Particle-Based Methods, E.Oñate and R.Owen, eds., Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 247–267.
Tulu, I. B., and Heasley, K. A., 2009, “Calibration of 3D Cutter-Rock Model With Single Cutter Tests,” 43rd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium & 4th U.S. - Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, Asheville, NC, p. 09–160.
Cai, M., Kaiser, P. K., Morioka, H., Minami, M., Maejima, T., Tasaka, Y., and Kurose, H., 2007, “FLAC/PFC Coupled Numerical Simulation of AE in Large-Scale Underground Excavations,” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 44(4), pp. 550–564. [CrossRef]
Liu, H. Y., Kou, S. Q., and Lindqvist, P. A., 2002, “Numerical Simulation of the Fracture Process in Cutting Heterogeneous Brittle Material,” Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 26(13), pp. 1253–1278. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Bottomhole patterns generated by PDC bits during laboratory tests: (a) true rotating pattern, (b) star pattern, and (c) chaotic pattern [122]

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Fig. 2

Drill tip whirl in metal drilling: (a) pentagon pattern at the hole bottom, (b) simulation results for the pentagon shaped hole [119], and (c) schematic of drill motion and cutting edge locus adapted from Ref. [121]

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Fig. 3

Bit balling phenomenon during shale drilling using PDC bits [123]

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Fig. 4

Angular speed vibration during stick-slip oscillations [131]

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Fig. 5

Drillable zone of PDC bits adapted from Ref. [148]

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Fig. 6

Penetration performance of various bit types [153]

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Fig. 7

Novel bit designs for hard-rock drilling: (a) hybrid drill bit (courtesy of Baker Hughes Company) [156]; (b) hybrid TSP roller drill bit [152]; and (c) antiwhirl bit [2]

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Fig. 8

Micrographic photos of worn diamond tools in machining processes: (a) wear in ductile mode ultraprecision cutting [162]; (b) microchipping in brittle mode ultraprecision cutting [162]; (c) wear of cutting tools with CVD diamond inserts in turning [163]; and (d) wear of cutting tools with PDC diamond inserts in turning [163]

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Fig. 9

Schematic of the wear and fracture mechanisms observed on PDC cutters: (1) microcracks; (2) microchipping on cutting edge; (3) abrasion; (4) chipping due to side impacts; (5) fatigue and delamination; (6) Hertizian cracks; and (7) chemical wear [9]

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Fig. 10

Wear and failure pictures of PDC cutters: (a) microchipping; (b) gross fracture; and (c) gross fracture, delamination, and heat checking [10]

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Fig. 11

Schematic of crack distribution under indentation [183]

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Fig. 12

Wedging action of a cutter adapted from Ref. [177]

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Fig. 13

General rock removal processes: (a) rotary action and (b) percussion

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Fig. 14

Periodic cuttings during a dragging action [7]

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Fig. 15

Forces in Fairhurst and Lacabanne's model adapted from Ref. [7]

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Fig. 16

Rock removal mechanism in Nishimatsu's model: a is the primary crushed zone, b is the secondary crushed zone, and c is the overcutting zone [62]

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Fig. 17

Modeling of rock using the PFC3D method [208]

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Fig. 18

Modeling of rock using the R-T2D method [209]

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Fig. 19

Boundary condition setup and simulation results of rock cutting processes [222]

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Fig. 20

The results of rock cutting modeling using the PFC2D code [223]

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Fig. 21

Rock cutting modeling using R-T2D code [209]

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